Horus holding the fog nozzle of the Great Pyramid of Giza, refreshing himself, and King Amasis demonstrating that he was able to master the Solvay process and that the manufacturing of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate was successful.
Horus Figure DUT 162 from the Louvre Museum and Kneeling statuette of King Amasis from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York. Accession Number: 35.9.3 : https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544886
Pyramids of the Giza Necropolis by KennyOMG : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giza_pyramid_complex#/media/File:Pyramids_of_the_Giza_Necropolis.jpg
0.01 Summary of the study: hidden behind the academic vision of the ancient Egyptian religion, a vast number of metaphors are describing some of the most advanced science and technological knowledge of that time : ancient Egyptian gods were nothing else than pharaohs' metaphoric self-glorifications of their theoretical and experimental scientific accomplishments in physics and chemistry.
Pharaohs used the power of Science to legitimate themselves as kings of Egypt : they forged an entire religion, based on science to rule their kingdom, and they presented that science as Magic.
The end game of this technological program that probably started on the very first Dynasty, was the Great Pyramid of Giza where evaporative cooling was engineered in the known part of the pyramid from the pressurized water produced in the inclined well, known today as the ascending passage.
The evaporative cold simply took advantage of the power of water, and was most probably necessary to cool down chemical manufacturing of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate produced by an ammonia-soda Solvay process, as suggested by the very strong ammonia smell and the limestone kiln in the so-called burial chamber of the Red Pyramid. At that time, sodium carbonate was called natron, and it was the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs (Sections 14, 15 and 16).
The cooling seems to have represented the most difficult part of the process, as suggested by the Step Pyramid's official name : according to scholars, the very first pyramid complex, the Step Pyramid of Djoser, was called "the refreshment of the Gods". No doubt that a more accurate translation would certainly be "the cooling of the Gods".
It means that ancient Egyptians were the first civilization to master a Solvay-like process for sodium carbonate manufacturing, long before it got reinvented in the 1800's in Europe. The key elements of that process is the temperature control of the chemical reactions (the cooling), and the dome shaped plate necessary for the counterflow chemical reactions to occur in an efficient way. That counterflow reaction plate is what really is the disc of Sabu.
As shown with Akhenaten and Nefertiti, the creation of the evaporative cold was the most sacred accomplishment of all (Section 17), and this is exactly what the Dendera Light is all about : the Dendera Light is the fog of microdroplets of liquid water that evaporates and creates the cold. Talking about the snake inside the Dendera Light Bulb : "The field surrounding Ra’s snake form is referred to in ancient Egyptian literature as protective magical energy in liquid form that all gods and pharaohs possess" (Faulkner, Section 2).
Everything that had been done in the Great Pyramid of Giza inspired most of the ancient Egyptian religion, and it had been glorified into what we know today as the Underworld.
The Underworld is referring to the chambers and passages of the Great Pyramid of Khufu, and in particular to the Grand Gallery where a hauling gantry beetle operated a wooden coffin shaped impactor that had a small nested granite block inside it. The impactor generated endlessly, over and over, maybe every 15 minutes the pressurized water that was then transformed into a fog of microdroplets inside the horizontal cooling passage.
The Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid where the act of hauling was done, is the "Secret Hauling Cavern of the Underworld" described in the Amduat "Book of the Hidden Chamber".
The most important chamber of the Great Pyramid wasn't the King's chamber that only was the main water tank of the pyramid, but the Queen's chamber, the only one on the central axis of the pyramid. Because the Queen's chamber was inaccessible from the rest of the pyramid, it was glorified into the "Hidden Chamber of the Underworld" (Section 11), and because the Queen's chamber was the coolest place in the pyramid (about 5°C / 41°F), and with a constant 100% Humidity rate, this chamber was the one where the biggest amount of very hard salt encrustation had been documented by the first explorers of the pyramid in the 1800's and before it had been removed in 1998 by Zahi Hawass (Section 1). Very hard salt encrustation is the signature of the evaporative cooling process, even nowadays.
The most incredible thing is that pretty much everything I've just said, actually appears in many myths, and they don't even originate from ancient Egypt : the "Churning of the Ocean" Hindu myth that produces the immortal nectar Amrita, the Tibetan Prayer Wheels operated to give small amounts of 'merit' to too lazy Naga snakes, and the entire Norse mythology with Thor's magical hammer endlessly fighting another Great Serpent of the Underworld and producing a mist of cold from a mysterious well that would be opposed to hellishly hot heat waves.
I'm talking a lot about the impactor of the Great Pyramid, but it is nothing compared to the tremendous impact caused by what the ancient Egyptians had accomplished within the 78 years of the Great Pyramids Era, from Djoser to the Great Pyramid: the entire ancient World had been shaken up in their deepest beliefs beyond all comprehension; and we are still talking about it today.
Diagram of the Great Pyramid of Giza in operation, for evaporative cold production.
The constant high humidity rate resulting of the evaporative cooling created in the horizontal passage and the Queen's chamber is explaining the presence of very thick and hard incrustation of salt in both of these parts of the Great Pyramid (read more on that subject in Section 1).
Salt encrustation is the signature of the evaporative cooling, even today.
0.02 The inclined well representation in KV11
Most of the time, Ancient Egyptians used to represent everything they accomplished in many metaphors, like the pressurization of the waters of the well (the Sycamore tree putting its weight upon Apep), but sometimes they also represented pretty accurate parts, and that is precisely what they did in this detail of a relief from Ramesses III KV11 tomb, where the inclined well is pretty accurately represented with its girdle stones reinforced lower part, as well as the water of the flooded upper part and the ejection of the pressurized water (snake = water).
Detail of an image from the ARCE, American Research Center in Egypt in partnership with the American University in Cairo Egyptology Department. KV 11: Rameses III, Side chamber Cc, rear wall. Valley of the Kings, East Valley, West Bank, Luxor. Image #21076 by Matjaz Kacicnik, taken on December 2005 : https://thebanmappingproject.com/images/21076jpg
0.03 The Pyramids of the Cold - Table of contents
Section 2 • The Evaporative Cooling : the Dendera Light
Section 8 • The Inclined Well : the draining of the well
Section 10 • The Impactor
Section 13 • The Grand Gallery : the Scarab Amulets
Section 14 • Solvay process (natron manufacturing) : the Red Pyramid
Section 18 • The Sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid
Section 19 • The Churning of the Ocean of Milk Hindu myth
Section 20 • The Weighing of the Heart and the peeing Baboon
Section 23 • The Sun God Ra impactor and the squeaky Hauling rope
Section 24 • The Osiris' seed and Horus' Opening of the Mouth
Section 25 • Two Ladies and the Shen Tow ring
Section 29 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone
This engraving shows Dutch mathematician and physicist Jean Henri van Swinden (1746–1823) demonstrating the generation of electricity to the Felix Meritis Society in Amsterdam. The Felix Meritis Society was founded in the late 18th century to promote the arts and sciences (Felix Meritis translates as "Happiness through Merit"). Barbiers, Pieter Pietersz., and Jacques Kuyper. Courtesy of Science History Institute in Philadelphia : https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/zg64tm573
The astronomical ceiling at the Pronaos, outer hypostyle hall in the Temple of Hathor in the Dendera Temple complex, near Dendera, Egypt. : detail of the first Band west from the centre, showing the full "healed moon on a pillar" depicted as "Wadjet" the Eye of Horus healed by Thoth, who is portrayed at the right. Thanks to Kairoinfo4U : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/9295311496
Jim Hutton as detective Ellery Queen, posing with a magnifying glass courtesy of NBC Television.
0.04 The real secret of ancient Egyptian pharaohs was scientific knowledge : physics and chemistry were perceived as magical proof that they were having the legitimacy to reign from the gods
The most advanced technological program developed by ancient Egyptians was the chemical manufacturing of natron using scientific knowledge in physics and chemistry.
At the time of the pharaohs, they didn't use the modern term "sodium carbonate" : it was called natron and it was the mummification salt. Today, we don't use the word natron anymore but we are still producing it : that is sodium carbonate, a chemical produced with sodium bicarbonate using an ammonia-soda Solvay process.
Pharaoh's Sneferu, Khufu's father, built 3 pyramids to master the production of this pure mineral form of the salt he was gonna use to access to immortality. If my theory is correct, the Great Pyramid of Khufu, at Giza, would be the achievement of his father's quest for immortality.
Scientific knowledge involving Physics and Chemistry was the real secret of the ancient Egyptians, probably for many generations before Sneferu ; and the demonstration of this knowledge would have been an important piece of the political balance between the people and their kings.
People would probably only see magic in physics and chemistry. Scientific knowledge was the proof that their rulers had the legitimacy to reign.
Physics and Chemistry were coming from the gods. Science was coming from the gods.
Sneferu was probably the most revolutionary pharaoh of all times, and he decided to deploy chemistry technology like never before. He didn't hesitate to build 3 pyramids and who knows how many smaller structures, to achieve the production of pure natron. The Great Pyramid of Giza should be seen, so to speak, as the fourth pyramid of Sneferu, the culmination of many years of hard work.
The pure natron produced inside the pyramids by Sneferu, had many advantages: they didn't have to rely on quarrying and purifying rocks, but I think the most important reason to do it, is that chemistry was probably seen at that time as magic.
Please note that on the 2 above images, both have the exact same meaning : they are both talking about science, observation and analysis.
Pharaoh's showing off their ability to master the chemistry crafts, was probably the cornerstone of their legitimacy to rule their kingdom. It was certainly assumed that the gods were giving that magical chemistry art directly to the pharaoh.
It is absolutely exhilarating to imagine what could have been that ancient Egyptian society, where most probably nobody had the right to even try to do any kind of chemistry, because it would have been perceived as an attempt to mimic the pharaoh's power and privileges.
Still, humans being what they are, some would have tried, and they would have been extremely severely punished for that.
The sacred and magic chemistry craft was the real secret and the real treasure of Ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptians represented snakes everywhere in countless occasions, but they were nothing but water metaphors referring to their scientific accomplishments in physics and chemistry (Section 5). Snakes = water.
0.05 The Great Pyramid of Khufu was a profound Change of Civilization Event
When operating, the Great Pyramid would have appeared like a living beast : a lot of noises, fumes and smoke would get out of it. 4,500 years ago, no wonder such a sight changed forever the identity of the Egyptian people and was at the origin of many symbolic or mythological scenes, figures, gods and artifacts.
One of the ramifications of my theory about Sneferu's pyramids, is that many aspects of ancient Egyptian religion and artifacts, maybe even most of them, are based on the operating of the Great Pyramid at Giza. Everything starts with Sneferu's reign and is quest for the sodium carbonate manufacturing: Sneferu wanted pure "magical" man made natron for his mummification, and probably other purposes, like chemical "magical" demonstrations to the people.
If there is no doubt that the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza was designed to create cold in the horizontal passage, using the power of evaporated water, its usage is purely hypothetical, and only based on the analysis of the Red Pyramid and the fact that the so called burial chamber was actually a limestone kiln. That kiln and the very strong ammonia smell are suggesting that ancient Egyptians developed in that pyramid the chemical manufacturing of sodium carbonate (also called natron, the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs) and sodium bicarbonate. Ancient Egyptians were the ones who invented the Solvay process in the first place.
My opinion is that they developed the evaporative cold in the Great Pyramid to master the process : in the Red Pyramid, the accumulation of ammonia indicates that they didn't control the chemical reaction temperatures at that time. If this assumption is right, then, on top of the Grand Gallery is set the Solvay reaction chambers with discs of Sabu inside.
Dendera Light, thanks to Kairoinfo4U: https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/14525094039/in/photostream/
It is important to understand that during the entire operation of the Great Pyramid, hence the creation of the evaporative cold, the bottom of the inclined well was what is now known as the upper granite plug. That crucial block has been deified into the goddess Taweret and was like suspended in mid-air, blocked by a smaller granite block set in the floor of the ascending passage : the wedging block that was deified into the deity Bes. Sections 6, 7, 8 and 9.
Hatshepsut’s birth scene, from Édouard Naville "The Temple of Deir el Bahari" (London, 1896), vol. 2, pl. 50. Image courtesy of the University Library Heidelberg : The Ebony shrine, northern half of the middle platform. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/naville1896bd2/0050
The hidden meaning of goddess of childbirth Taweret is all about water : it is about the draining of the inclined well of the Great Pyramid. Taweret is represented as an hippopotamus because she was the glorifying personification of the granite block that sealed the bottom of the inclined well. Like an hippopotamus does, Taweret spent all her time at the bottom of the well, under water all day long.
Scene from the astronomical ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Dendera Temple of Hathor at Lunet (Lunet is the ancient Egyptian name of Dendera), showing 'goddess of the sky' Nut with her entire body made of water, as indicated by the very large blue water ripple signs on her body. Photograph thanks to Kairoinfo4U : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/9293995463/in/photostream/
Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs : 'mHti mHt wrt' (My flood (is) the great flood). Source : Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Deities like Shu, Geb, Nut and Tefnut are referring to the basic fundamental physical laws that are explaining the evaporative cooling process. Shu is the representation of dry and warm air, Geb is the representation of water in liquid form, Nut is the representation of the evaporated water (water in the sky), and Tefnut is the representation of liquid water in form of microdroplets (that is spat water, as 'tf' means 'to spit').
Additionally to these "fundamental" gods, other gods were also directly referring to the practical application of these scientific concepts : they were the "experimental" gods, like Apep (the pressurized waters of the inclined well), Atum (the small amount of that pressurized water ejected towards the evaporative passage), Nefertem (the water supply pipe of the fog nozzle and the fog nozzle itself) and Amun, the "invisible" King of Gods that was representing the evaporative process strictly speaking and thus, creating the cold.
For more on ancient Egyptian gods as glorifying representations of the accomplishments of pharaoh's scientists and engineers, and the way they are referring to whether the theoretical or experimental point of view of that scientific knowledge, please read Section 3 and 17 for explanations on the Ankh symbol.
Drawing of Amun-Ra, post Amarna : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amun-Ra_post_Amarna_(azure_skin_color).svg
The Hauling Beetle of the Great Pyramid of Giza, for 8 crewmembers operating the wooden gantry inside the Grand Gallery. The Grand Gallery had been glorified into the famous "hauling cavern of the Underworld" of the Amduat, the Book of the Hidden Chamber. All the known chambers and passages of the Great Pyramid are representing the Underworld, and the Queen's chamber is the Hidden chamber itself, the most important chamber of the whole pyramid.
0.06 Most of ancient Egyptian gods and artifacts didn't exist at the time of Sneferu's reign
The first thing we should have in mind in regards to ancient Egyptian studies, is that pretty much everything we can think of nowadays with religious significance, didn't exist at the time when Sneferu was building his pyramids and planning for the Great Pyramid at Giza, that I believe will inherit his son, Khufu.
At the time of Sneferu and the Fourth Dynasty, the scarab amulets didn't exist ; gods Horus, Isis, Osiris, Nefertem, Ptah, Sokar, etc. didn't exist. The Eye of Horus didn't exist. The Four Sons of Horus didn't exist. The scarab beetle faced god Kephri-Ra didn't exist. The 8 Ogdoad primordial deities didn't exist. All these elements only start to appear progressively with the Fifth and Sixth Dynasty.
The question everyone should ask, is what the heck happened, that would explain that suddenly, in just a period of a few decades, scarab beetle amulets were crafted in vast numbers and all these new "gods" appear with so many unusual artifacts (the Khepeshes, the wooden base of figurines in the shape of a wooden beam, lotus flowers with copper pipes, etc.).
Pretty much everything we know about ancient Egyptian religion starts with the pyramid texts on the Fifth Dynasty: "The Pyramid Texts are the oldest ancient Egyptian funerary texts, dating to the late Old Kingdom. They are the earliest known corpus of ancient Egyptian religious texts. Written in Old Egyptian, the pyramid texts were carved onto the subterranean walls and sarcophagi of pyramids at Saqqara from the end of the Fifth Dynasty, and throughout the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, and into the Eighth Dynasty of the First Intermediate Period" (source : Wikipedia).
Pharaoh Ptolemy IV Philopator (222–204 BC) adoring Montu — in the "Place Of Truth" of Deir el-Medina : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montu#/media/File:Menthu_and_Ptolemy_IV.jpg
0.07 The temples of ancient Egypt
Do you really believe that the biggest "temples" were for worship?
Do you know that the biggest temples employed "tens of thousands of people" and that they had their own sailing ships to get materials abroad?
What do you think, let's say that 50.000 people were doing in these "temples" all year long?
These are some clues : scientific and technological university studies, research application centers, "religious" artists, physical training, etc.
"Temples were key centers of economic activity. The largest required prodigious resources and employed tens of thousands of priests, craftsmen, and laborers." Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_temple
Ancient Egyptian temples were the heart of the technological efforts for chemical manufacturing. It was in these temples that everything about this scientific program was elaborate. In these temples, the disc of Sabu was designed to achieve the most effective counterflow reactions, a Solvay-like process was developed and the evaporative cooling was mastered.