The Pyramids of the Cold Section 13 • The impactor's wooden and stone composite design
Publié par Bruno Coursol dans The Pyramids of the Cold v2 le
Ancient Egyptian god Osiris, standing onto what he really is all about: the glorifying deification of the Osiris stone weight of the composite impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Original image of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid, built by pharaoh Khufu, from page 52 of "The call of the stars; a popular introduction to a knowledge of the starry skies with their romance and legend" (1919) by Kippax, John R. (John Robert), 1849-1922: https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/14597229618/
The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023) • Part C: the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza
Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris
In summary: the impactor was a moving caisson that was dropped from the top of the Grand Gallery into the inclined well waters, in order to obtain pressurized water that would be redirected towards the evaporative cooling passage.
Made of a wooden cradle float with an inserted granite weight, the impactor was represented in many different ways, based on its weight that caused powerful impacts with the waters of the well (bulls and the horns of a ram), the pressurization of these waters (the Sycamore tree, legs and paws put upon snakes) or even the way that it was getting into the water of the well (the crocodiles).
The wooden base of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris Figure, 306–30 B.C. from the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New-York: www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/553823
Figure of Osiris-Iah, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548421
13.01 The imperative specifications of a composite wooden and stone design of the impactor of the Pyramid
The idea of pressurizing water in order to produce a fog of liquid microdroplets that would evaporate and create cold, "evaporative cold", imply the use of an impactor of some kind that would be "dropped" in that water again and again…
Once you have a pressure resistant container of some kind (the inclined well), the problem is to design an impactor that is efficient enough in pressurizing the well, but also easy enough to operate. And this is why the impactor couldn't just be a block of stone: they had to insert this block into a wooden cradle so that they could easily lift the structure by using ropes, and then release it in the slope so that it can gain speed and energy, with no excessive friction.
13.02 There is no solar barque of Ra: Ra really is the barque
The ancient Egyptian myth about Sun god Ra on his barque, endlessly sailing through the Underworld, day after day and fighting the Great Serpent Apep every single night without ever killing him, is nothing less than a metaphorical description of the endless cycle of operation of the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. During its entire operating period, the impactor was relentlessly ramming into the inclined well waters, to produce pressurized water and evaporative cold production through a fog nozzle in the horizontal passage.
In the Osiris myth, the trick for its understanding is that there is no Ra sailing on a barque: Ra is the barque itself. Ra is about the wooden part of the impactor of the Great Pyramid.
To be more specific, and because we know that Ra was supposed to "merge" with Osiris in the Underworld, and that it was Osiris who would give to Ra all his force and all his power, Ra is the representation of the wooden coffin of the impactor, and Osiris the representation of the granite stone that was lodged inside that coffin. The Osiris stone was the weight, the ballast stone in which the impactor Ra gained all his power.
If Isis is described as the One who is saving Osiris in the Osiris myth, it is because Isis is representing the Hauling rope of the impactor: she is getting Osiris out of the waters of the well. And if Isis' twin sister Nephthys is described as "below the earth and invisible" when Isis is "above the earth and manifest", it is because Nephthys is that exact same rope, but completely coiled around the axle beam. Isis and Nephthys aren't twin sisters: they are the same thing; they are simply representing the same rope at two different times in its operating cycle.
Isis is the active Hauling rope and Nephthys is the inactive rope fully resting around its axle beam and disconnected with the impactor.
Solar barque with Ra and Khepri, scene from Joseph Smith Hypocephalus, by HarJIT: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_barque#/media/File:Khepri_Re_Hypocephalus_Scene.svg
13.03 Ra and Osiris had to literally merge together in the Underworld to accomplish their task
For a very long time, I couldn't figure out what exactly was Ra representing, and I think I got confused by the academic vision of Ra, particularly about his Solar barque; because there is not such a thing as Ra's Solar barque. Ra is the barque; Ra is the vessel that is carrying the Osiris stone through the Underworld. Ra is the impactor of the Great Pyramid.
One thing we know about Ra, is that "When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris..." and because we already know that the Underworld is the internal layout of the Great Pyramid and that Osiris is the granite stone that was inside the impactor, it means that Ra is the wooden impactor itself.
This idea of Ra and Osiris merging together is probably the most important data of all the ancient Egyptian religion, and it has to be taken literally.
"Throughout the day, Ra sailed across the sky in his barge and then descended down into the underworld at night. The sun barge now transformed into the evening barge known as the Ship of a Million Souls which picked up the newly arrived and justified dead to bring them to the paradise of the Field of Reeds. Ra at this time becomes merged with Osiris, the judge of the dead, and Osiris is seen as the “corpse” and Ra as the “soul” of the single deity Ra-Osiris."
"As this deity, Ra confers with Osiris on the deepest of levels, perhaps confirming which souls have been rightly justified before transporting them, and then traveling on through the underworld darkness toward the dawn of paradise. As the barge rolls through the underworld, it is attacked by the serpent Apophis who tries to kill Ra and prevent the sunrise. The gods onboard fight the serpent off with the help of the justified dead while, on earth, the living encourage the defenders through ritual ceremonies, channeling positive energies to strengthen those on board. Every night Apophis attacks, and every night he is defeated. Ra and his crew sail on toward dawn, the justified dead are delivered to their destination, and the sunrise was then seen as the sign that Ra was again victorious, and the Egyptians would see another day." https://www.worldhistory.org/Ra_(Egyptian_God)/
Tefen and Befen around the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza, at two different phases of the impactor's operating cycle.
13.04 The single deity "Ra-Osiris" when "Ra becomes merged with Osiris"
We've seen that in the ancient Egyptian religion, everything is nothing but metaphors and the Underworld isn't different; it is absolutely not just a metaphysical idea: the Underworld is very real, it is the glorification of the internal layout of the Great Pyramid. The King's chamber, the Grand Gallery, the inclined well, the evaporative cooling passage and the Queen's chamber, they all together constitute the ancient Egyptian Underworld.
One particular phrase from the last excerpt is exceptional, and is explaining the role of both deities in the single deity Ra-Osiris: "Ra at this times becomes merged with Osiris, the judge of the dead, and Osiris is seen as the "corpse" and Ra as the "soul" of the single deity Ra-Osiris."
This phrase can be easily understood simply by replacing the term "soul" by "vessel". Ra is the vessel for the "corpse" of Osiris. Translated, it means that Osiris is the one who has to be moved, by using the Ra "vessel".
In short, Ra is the wooden "vessel" for the Osiris granite stone, and combined together they are forming the impactor of the Great Pyramid.
Banebdjedet wielding a scepter of the Was-sceptre, Djed, and Ankh. From the Tomb of Mentuherkhepeshef in the Valley of the Kings. Photograph thanks to kairoinfo4u: https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/3331554556/in/photostream/
Ram fighting on Wikimedia Commons thanks to Brahim Djelloul Mustapha: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Ram_fighting
13.05 When Ra becomes merged with Osiris, the Great "inert", "asleep" and "lethargic" Osiris, but who at the same time gives all his "force", "ramming power" and "energy" to Ra
The fact that Osiris is nothing but the glorification of what was the weight of the impactor, its ballast so to speak, is actually perfectly explaining one of his epithets: Osiris was seen as the "Great inert".
About Osiris' epithets: "The egyptologist W. Budge counts no less than forty of them. The Egyptians, always obsessed by their desire to reject death by any means, use metaphors or more or less explicit circumlocution to speak of Osiris and his state. The various Books of the Dead teem with them. One notices that the God never dead, he is asleep, he is apathetic, he is lethargic, etc. Here are some examples: "the great inert", "the king of those who are not", "the Lord of the living", "the master of eternity", "the one who governs Ro-Setau", "the first of the westerners". https://www.osirisnet.net/dieux/osiris/e_osiris_01.htm
I need to point out that this "inert", "asleep" and "lethargic" Osiris, is the exact same one than the Osiris who is giving all his force, all his power and all his "ramming" energy to Ra: "Ra at this time becomes merged with Osiris, the judge of the dead, and Osiris is seen as the “corpse” and Ra as the “soul” of the single deity Ra-Osiris." https://www.worldhistory.org/Ra_(Egyptian_God)/
"Osiris' soul, or rather his Ba, was occasionally worshipped in its own right, almost as if it were a distinct god […] This aspect of Osiris was referred to as Banebdjedet. […] As Banebdjed, Osiris was given epithets such as Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra. Ba does not mean "soul" in the western sense, and has to do with power, reputation, force of character, especially in the case of a god. […] Since the ba was associated with power, and also happened to be a word for ram in Egyptian, Banebdjed was depicted as a ram, or as Ram-headed." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osiris (in the "Ram god" section).
Statuette of Osiris Late Period ca. 588–526 B.C. at the MET: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/546747
Statuette of Osiris" Late Period 664–332 B.C. at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/545802
Figure of Osiris at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore MD: https://art.thewalters.org/detail/36613/statue-of-osiris/
Osiris offered by the Astronomer of the House of Amun, Ibeb. Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1070–712 B.C. at the MET: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/547898
13.06 The glorification of the wooden and stone composite design of the impactor in the Osiris myth
There are some excerpts of the Osiris myth, in which had been glorified the chore of the operation of the Great Pyramid: the wooden and stone composite nature of the impactor, designed to get in the water.
What is very interesting in this myth, is that it is clearly suggested that first was designed the Osiris stone, and only then, the wooden vessel for the stone had been crafted: "Set, that Wicked One, had in secret measured the body of Osiris, and the coffer was made to fit the body of the King, for this was part of the plan."
What it means is that the ancient Egyptian engineers first had to determine what power they needed in order to pressurize the waters of the well to get the perfect fog of microdroplets in the evaporative cooling passage; and only then they were able to design the wooden coffin, then maybe the gutter and all the Grand Gallery's design: the slope, the length, etc.
Excerpts are from Sacred Texts: https://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/ael/ael08.htm#page_41
"Set hated his brother Osiris, and he gathered to himself seventy-two conspirators […]. And they made a plan that when Osiris returned they should kill him and place Set on the throne; but they hid their plans, and with smiling faces went out to meet Osiris when he re-entered Egypt in triumph."
"In secret they met again and again, in secret also they prepared a coffer made of costly wood painted and decorated with rich designs and glowing colours […]. Set, that Wicked One, had in secret measured the body of Osiris, and the coffer was made to fit the body of the King, for this was part of the plan."
"When all was ready, Set bade his brother and the seventy-two conspirators to a feast in his great banqueting-hall. […] Then Set stood up in his place and said, "He who lies down in this coffer and whom it fits, to that man I will give it." His words were sweet as honey, but in his heart was the bitterness of evil."
"One after one, the conspirators lay down in the coffer with jests and laughter; for one it was too long, and for another it was too short, and for a third it was too wide, and for a fourth too narrow. Then came Osiris to take his turn, and he, all unsuspecting, lay down in it. At once the conspirators seized the lid and clapped it on; some nailed it firmly in its place, while others poured molten lead into all the openings lest he should breathe and live. Thus died the great Osiris."
"The conspirators lifted the chest, which was now a coffin, and carried it to the river-bank. They flung it far into the water, and Hapi the Nile-god caught it and carried it upon his stream to the sea; the Great Green Waters received it and the waves bore it to Byblos and lifted it into a tamarisk-tree that grew by the shore."
Wooden base of a Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure at the MET, dedicated to a temple musician named Ihet; it is inscribed with offering prayers and texts glorifying the gods: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/553823
13.07 The Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure bases are representations of the wooden cradle float of the impactor
It is important to note about the above Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure, that hieroglyphs are painted everywhere on the board, with the exception of a big rectangular shape. I need to point out that this particular area is not blank of any decoration because it is supposed to be covered with the feet of the standing figure: the blank rectangular shape is much bigger that the imprint of the feet onto the long figure base, and the mummy had clearly let an imprint inside that rectangular shape, that appears in a different yellowish color around the hole.
Many times, the standing figure (Osiris or Osiris-like figures), are not simply set directly on the long wooden base though, but on an intermediate piece: that piece is the Osiris stone itself.
Like in many occasions, ancient Egyptians represented the same thing twice, one standing on the other one: the deification of the Osiris stone in its human form (that is Osiris), is represented set onto the Osiris stone itself.
This is the exact same thing that we've already seen with Bes, standing on himself (the wedging block of the inclined well).
And that is precisely what some figures of Imhotep are showing: Imhotep standing on the Osiris stone. Most probably, for shock resistance reasons, this stone was made of granite.
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris Figure of Ankhshepenwepet, third Intermediate Period, ca. 712–664 B.C.at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ptah-Sokar-Osiris_Figure_of_Ankhshepenwepet_MET_25.3.204_EGDP021573.jpg et https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548279
13.08 The design of the impactor: the wooden cradle for the Osiris stone
Hopefully, ancient Egyptians did give to us many representations of the wooden cradle: they are the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure bases. Not only do they show us the general shape of the impactor, but the standing figures of Osiris are also showing where was nested the Osiris stone inside the wooden coffin: at one end of the cradle.
In some Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures, Osiris is even represented with the Osiris stone itself, for example in the figure offered by the Astronomer of the House of Amun, Ibed.
In some other figures the stone is only suggested, for example in the Accession Number: 21.9.1a–c artifact from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, where the entire base of the figure is completely covered with decorations, with 2 exceptions side by side: a small blank rectangular shape and a big one. Even if the small blank area of the board is still mysterious to me, the big one is in my opinion, still blank, because it is suggesting the exact position where the stone block was inserted into the cradle.
13.09 The representation of the ramming force of the impact: the ram's horns of the Osiris figures
It is indeed Osiris, the granite weight of the impactor who has all the force and the ramming power of the impactor, hence the ram's horns of Osiris on the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures.
Statuette of Osiris Late Period ca. 588–526 B.C. at the MET: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/546747
Figure of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris" 86.1.88a–d at the Metropolitan Museum, New-York: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551504
Statue of Harbes, called Psamtiknefer, son of Ptahhotep. Harbes was an official of the pharaoh Psamtik II. This statue depicts him protecting a figure of the god Osiris. Harbes wears the king's two cartouches on either shoulder. The statue was anciently set up in Karnak Temple at Thebes, where it constitutes a rare example inscribed for this king. Accession Number: 19.2.2. Late Period, Saite, 595–589 B.C. at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, MET New-York: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/546748
13.10 Harbes represented lifting (the) Osiris (stone)
Again, same principle as we've already seen plenty of times now: Osiris is represented here twice, first in his human form, and second in its original form, the Osiris stone.
Also, the gesture of Harbes isn't of a man protecting Osiris like indicated by the MET, but that of a man who is lifting Osiris. The statue is about Harbes being able to lift the Osiris stone.
Le réveil d'Osiris [the awakening of Osiris] at Exposition Osiris, Institut du Monde Arabe, by Jean-Pierre Dalbéra, on flickr
13.11 The worship of the ram is the worship of the ramming impactor
Granitic gneiss statue of the ram of Amun protecting figure of Taharqo between folded front legs, © The Trustees of the British Museum: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/image/399481001
If Ra is represented into a falcon, it is because of its speed and the way it is hitting its prey at high velocity : "The peregrine falcon is renowned for its speed, reaching up to 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop (high-speed dive), making the peregrine falcon the fastest member of the animal kingdom." Ra, as a falcon is all about this high-speed dive and the force of the impact with its prey. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peregrine_falcon
Ra-Horakhty is a combined deity of Horus and Ra, and is usually depicted as a falcon-headed man. Draw by Jeff Dahl: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ra#/media/File:Re-Horakhty.svg
Photograph of a high-speed diving falcon by Lassannn, on imgur and also at https://www.facebook.com/wildlifeatrisk/photos/a.442972959170883/1593597324108435/
Le réveil d'Osiris (the Awakening of Osiris) at the Exposition Osiris, Institut du Monde Arabe, by Gautier Poupeau: https://www.flickr.com/photos/lespetitescases/24213359861
Skeleton infographic by the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation: https://www.ibsf.org/en/our-sports/skeleton-info-graphics
13.12 Seth is fighting both Osiris and Horus... because Horus = Ra + Osiris
It is by combining the two most important ancient Egyptian myths, both involving Seth, that we can understand the most important part of the study: god "of the sky" Horus, really is the deification of the composite impactor of the Great Pyramid.
Horus = Ra + Osiris
13.13 The Contendings between Horus and Seth in the Osiris myth
The key point to understand who really was Horus and which part of the glorification process he was involved in, is to understand who, or what was he really endlessly fighting in the Osiris' myth describing his Contendings with Seth.
We've already seen this exact same idea of endless fights between two deities: it was Ra fighting the Great Serpent Apep in the Underworld, on his Solar barque. And we've seen that it was the glorifying representation of the endless sequential pressurization of the inclined well waters by the impactor of the Great Pyramid.
So, what is Horus all about, if it isn't about pressurization of water? Well, Seth is the answer, and we'll see that he is all about the air: Seth is the (pressurized) air pushed by the impactor inside the fixed caisson.
Another way of saying that is that Horus (the composite impactor unit) was fighting Seth (the pressurized air).
13.14 The boat of Horus made of wood but painted to resemble and act like a stone
The following excerpt is the key point to understand both Horus and Seth. Because their fight can't be about the waters of the well (that is represented into the Ra and Apep myth), it can only be about the air that is slowing down the fall of the impactor inside the fixed caisson: "Horus and Set challenged each other to a boat race, where they each raced in a boat made of stone. Horus and Set agreed, and the race started. But Horus had an edge: his boat was made of wood painted to resemble stone, rather than true stone."
The "boat made of wood" is the wooden cradle; and if Seth is all about the air, as we've already seen in the Seth's animal, it means that the boat made of wood but "painted to resemble to stone" is fighting the air: it is a wooden boat (a wooden cradle), but because it is painted to resemble stone, it also acts like a stone.
I had some trouble exactly figure this part out, because personally I would have described the design of the impactor: I would have say "it is a stone, painted to resemble wood". I didn't understand first that ancient Egyptians only focused here on the function. Most metaphors used to describe the operating of the Great Pyramid, are about the function, the role and not the design.
What ancient Egyptians did glorify is the fact that it was an impactor made of wood but acted ("painted") like it was made of stone.
"Throughout the day, Ra sailed across the sky in his barge and then descended down into the underworld at night […] Ra at this time becomes merged with Osiris, the judge of the dead, and Osiris is seen as the “corpse” and Ra as the “soul” of the single deity Ra-Osiris." https://www.worldhistory.org/Ra_(Egyptian_God)/
Relief in the tomb of Paschedu, Deir el-Medina, Egypt, Luxor West-Bank, photographed by kairoinfo4u: https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/430887106/in/album-72157600016963557/
13.15 The Osiris stone is actually represented right her under our very eyes, in the throne of Osiris itself
On this relief, nothing about Osiris is static: everything is in motion. In Section 1, it is explained that the character on the left is pushing and putting the Osiris stone into motion: the part of the throne of Osiris, without any decoration, is mimicking the hollowed cavity of the Osiris stone (mark 3 is the "House of Osiris"). In Section 2, Osiris is depicted descending down the steep slope of the hill (which is the Grand Gallery) on his throne (which is actually his own "House"), and smiting into the waters of the well, also represented at his feet.
Tomb of Pashedu TT3 at Deir el-Medina, thanks to kairoinfo4u: https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/11403232974/in/photostream/
13.16 The ancient Egyptian worshiping posture is about pushing and putting the Osiris stone into motion
A better look at the true original meaning of the ancient Egyptian "worshiping posture": the little character is facing the Osiris stone, and what he is really doing is participating in putting this stone, the one that powered up the Great Pyramid, into motion.
13.17 When Osiris and Horus are directly associated with "cooling" and "cold water"
"Osiris N, take this fresh water, cooled for you by Horus, in your name of He-who-is-come-from-the-fresh-water". […] "The most complete ancient work in existence of the myth of Osiris which we know is that of Plutarch, in his 'De Iside et Osiride'. We know the stratagem used by Seth and his associates, and we know how the conspirator, having locked Osiris precisely by guile in a chest made to his measurements, threw it into the sea, an episode which Plutarch is the only one to relate, began the mourning and the quest of Isis. […] Osiris is designated as the one who had been "put in a chest (deben), in a box and in a bag".Nadine GUILHOU: Les deux morts d'Osiris, d'après les textes des Pyramides.
Extracted from the magazine "Egypte", N°10, August 1998: https://www.osirisnet.net/dieux/osiris/e_osiris_03.htm
"But I am parched with thirst and I perish. Give me quickly the cold water flowing forth from the Lake of Memory". Delia, D. (1992). The Refreshing Water of Osiris, page 189. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 29, 181–190. https://doi.org/10.2307/40000492
Diagram of the operating Great Pyramid of Egypt for evaporative cold production (hypothetically for chemical manufacturing cooling of pure sodium carbonate "natron", the salt used for the mummification of pharaohs). When in operation, the elevation of the Great Pyramid was not finished, and it is only after the shutdown procedure and the draining of the inclined well, that the 3 granite plugs were finally close to one another.
The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023) • Summary and full Table of Contents
Part A • The evaporative cooling process
Part B • The inclined well of the Great Pyramid (Bes, Taweret, the girdle stones, the draining of the well...)
Part C • The composite impactor of the Great Pyramid (Horus, Ra, Osiris, Medjed, Sobek...)
Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris
Section 14 • The endlessly immersed Osiris stone and the seed metaphor
Section 15 • The Anubis sledge and the bobsled mask
Section 16 • The sledge runners of the impactor: Thoth
Section 17 • Medjed: the smiter nobody can ever see
Section 18 • The Apis bull and the ramming impactor's metaphors
Section 19 • The crocodile god Sobek impactor (more or less) floating in the waters of the well
Section 20 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone rising from water
Part D • The Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid: the Sacred "sloping paths" of the "Cavern of the act of Hauling"
Part E • The biosand filter Sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid for water treatment: softening and microbial stability
Part F • Chemical manufacturing and industrial cooling before the Great Pyramid (disc of Sabu, Solvay process in the Red Pyramid...)
Part G • The impact of the Great Pyramid on the whole ancient world (Thor, the Churning of the Ocean of Milk, the Emerald Tablet)... and Kebechet: the goddess of cooling water
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