On this scene representing Nut, water is here clearly represented. In the same scene below, water is not represented, but it is though suggested by the solar boats, the fisherman, the fishing net and the postures of Geb and Nut. Goddess of the sky Nut is clearly diving into the water. Geb is not represented because he is the water. Shu is also not represented because he is the sail of the boat.
The Pyramids of the Cold - Section 3 • The Evaporative Cold : the glorifying metaphors of Heka, Geb, Shu, Nut and Tefnut
In summary : deities like Shu, Geb, Nut and Tefnut are referring to the basic fundamental physical laws that are explaining the evaporative cooling process. Shu is the representation of dry and warm air, Geb is the representation of water in liquid form, Nut is the representation of the evaporated water (water in the sky), and Tefnut is the representation of liquid water in form of microdroplets (that is spat water, as 'tf' means 'to spit').
Additionally to these "fundamental" gods, other gods were also directly referring to the practical application of these scientific concepts : they were the "experimental" gods, like Apep (the pressurized waters of the inclined well), Atum (the small amount of that pressurized water ejected towards the evaporative passage), Nefertem (the water supply pipe of the fog nozzle and the fog nozzle itself) and Amun, the "invisible" King of Gods that was representing the evaporative process strictly speaking and thus, creating the cold.
3.01 The link between the water of the Nile (Hapi) and the Dendera Light womb of Nut : Geb, the "god of the earth"
"Hapi (Ancient Egyptian: ḥʿpy) was the god of the annual flooding of the Nile in ancient Egyptian religion. […] Hapi was not regarded as the god of the Nile itself but of the inundation event. He was also considered a "friend of Geb", the Egyptian god of the earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hapi_(Nile_god)
In my opinion, Geb is actually a lot more than just a friend, because Geb, as Hapi and Nut, is all about water.
Scene from the astronomical ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Dendera Temple of Hathor at Lunet (Lunet is the ancient Egyptian name of Dendera), showing 'goddess of the sky' Nut with her entire body made of water, as indicated by the very large blue water ripple signs on her body. Photographs thanks to Kairoinfo4U : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/9293995463/in/photostream/ and https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/9293856443/in/photostream/
Image of the water ripple sign on top of Apep, from the wall relief of Apep, temple of Edfu, Egypt thanks to Remith
3.02 The solar boats sailing onto Nut, the fisherman and the fishing net clues that Nut = Water
Many clues in the following representations are actually clearly suggesting that Nut is all about water :
• The fact that solar boats are sailing directly onto her body.
•The fact that a fisherman is represented with half his body immersed into water : he simply appears cut in half.
• The fact that the fisherman is throwing a fishing net.
Papyrus mythologique de Tanytamon, Egyptien 172. Bibliothèque nationale de France, département des manuscrits (color and luminosity modified on gimp) : https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8304598h
3.03 Shu is not separating Geb from Nut, Shu is holding Nut in the air : Shu is absorbing moisture and accumulating humidity
In my opinion, that scene of Geb and Nut separated from each other by Shu is actually representing the cycle of water between its liquid form and its evaporated form.
Nut is getting out of the water (her lower body) and then comes back in with her upper body.
3.04 So why Nut is described as the goddess of the sky and Geb as the god of the earth ?
We've just seen that Nut and Geb were both representing water, but in two different forms : liquid water (Geb) and evaporated water (Nut). Once you take the water out of the equation, the only elements remaining is the earth (where the liquid water is) and the sky (where humidity and moisture are).
This is why today, egyptologists say that Geb is the god of the earth and Nut the goddess of the sky.
They are just missing the water.
Scene showing Geb (back swimming into liquid water), Nut (represented diving into the water), and Shu in the center, "holding" goddess Nut : https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fichier:Geb_and_Nut03.png.
Diving drawing : https://www.mobilesport.ch/plongeon/plongeon-basics-chute/
Backstroke technique : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Backstroke_(PSF).png
3.05 Why nobody is describing the relation of Nut with water despite her water-pot emblem and the name similarity with Tefnut ?
I think the reason is that nobody really wants to talk about the water. It is that simple. But if you do that, not only you can't understand the Dendera Light, but you can't understand "god of the earth" Geb either.
For egyptologists, water doesn't deserve to be studied for anything else but agriculture, even though the expression "the power of water" appears in many occasions in the Book of the Dead, as well as the one we've just seen : "the protective magical energy in liquid form" about the Dendera Light.
If you don't think about water in the famous Geb and Nut paintings where Shu is represented "separating" them both, you can't understand their respective postures.
If you do think about water you understand that :
1 • Geb is swimming : Geb is a representation of liquid water (on earth) = god of the water on earth
2 • Nut is diving into the water from the air : Nut is a representation of humidity / moisture = goddess of water in the sky
3 • Shu (god of dry warm air and fog) is the one receiving / holding / sustaining / supporting that humidity and he is the one separating them both
In short, the Geb and Nut scene is all about the evaporative process that is the motor of the evaporative cooling.
The goddess Nut, in theTemple of Hathor at Dendera. Thanks to Hamerani on Wikimedia Commons : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Temple_of_Hathor_at_Dendera._The_goddess_Nut.jpg
Ancient Egyptian representation of a basic fundamental principle of physics and its application for the production of evaporative cooling in the Great Pyramid of Giza.
The ancient Egyptian gods (and the Great Serpent of the Underworld Apep) involved in the cold production of the Lower Great Pyramid of Khufu : Atum who created 2 other gods by spitting them out of his mouth : Shu (the god of dry warm air and fog), and Tefnut (the goddess of moisture and humidity) ; and Nefertem that represented the fog nozzle itself, and who "had arisen from the primal waters" and was the "beautiful one who closes" or "one who does not close"; as a perfect "tap" or "valve" analogy.
"In the Book of the Dead, [...], the sun god Atum is said to have ascended from chaos-waters with the appearance of a snake, the animal renewing itself every morning."
3.06 The Serpent god Atum spat out Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture
"Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut by spitting them out of his mouth. Other myths state Atum created by masturbation…"
"He produced from his own sneeze, or in some accounts, semen, Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture."
My comments : when it is said Atum was created by masturbation, it is of course another metaphor here. When Isis is breastfeeding Horus, it is not milk he is receiving, but the cold liquid solution ; the same way when Atum is depicted masturbating, or when semen is invoked, it is only a way of depicting the high pressurized water coming out of the fog nozzle into microdroplets.
Once again, there is no breastfeeding, no masturbation, no semen and no spitting snake (see the Dendera Light post). These are only metaphors of the cooling fluids and the fog nozzle functioning with pressurized water.
3.07 God Shu (spat out by the Serpent Atum) was associated with dry warm air, cooling and fog
"The ancient Egyptian god Shu is represented as a human with feathers on his head, as he is associated with dry and warm air."
"As the air, Shu was considered to be a cooling, and thus calming, influence, and pacifier. Due to the association with dry air, calm, and thus Ma'at (truth, justice, order, and balance), Shu was depicted as the dry air/atmosphere between the earth and sky, separating the two realms after the event of the First Occasion."
"Fog and clouds were also Shu's elements and they were often called his bones. Because of his position between the sky and earth, he was also known as the wind."
Source : Wikipedia page on ancient Egyptian god Shu : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shu_(Egyptian_god)
3.08 Goddess Tefnut (also spat out by the Serpent Atum) was associated with spat water and moisture
"Tefnut (tfnwt) is a deity of moisture, moist air, dew and rain in Ancient Egyptian religion."
"Literally translating as "That Water", the name Tefnut has been linked to the verb 'tfn' meaning 'to spit'."
Source : Wikipedia page on ancient Egyptian goddess Tefnut : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tefnut
3.09 The water cycle of the evaporative cooling
Not only ancient Egyptians represented the creation of the evaporative cooling in the famous Dendera Light reliefs in the Hathor temple, but they also represented the theoretical part of the process in the famous scene showing Geb, Nut and Shu.
This scene is reproducing the water cycle from its liquid form (GEB) to its evaporated form (NUT) that is sustained by the dry warm air (SHU).
3.10 No one ever questioned the fact that Nut, the "goddess of the sky" had a water-pot emblem ?
According to Wikipedia's page on Tefnut, 'tfn' means 'to spit : "Literally translating as "That Water", the name Tefnut has been linked to the verb 'tfn' meaning 'to spit' and versions of the creation myth say that Ra (or Atum) spat her out and her name was written as a mouth spitting in late texts ". Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tefnut
But according to https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tfn, 'tfn' means orphan : "Conventional anglicization: tefen. orphan".
The correct translation for 'to spit' would be 'tf' and not 'tfn' : "Etymology 2 : (intransitive) to spit (+ m: to spit (something) out) [Pyramid Texts, rarely later]". https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tf
3.11 Tefnut = 'to spit' + Nut. It means that Nut is referring to water
If Wiktionary is right over Wikipedia, that means that Tefnut, 'tfnwt' is 'tf' + 'nwt' = to spit + 'nwt'
If Tefnut means "that water" and is referring to spat water, then Nut 'nwt' is referring to water itself. Hence the water-pot emblem of goddess Nut.
3.12 The theoretical evaporative process of the cold production
What is remarkable with the Geb and Nut scene, is that it is a representation of the evaporative process that is producing the cold inside the Great Pyramid.
We've already seen in the first post about the Dendera Light (June 5th 2021), that ancient Egyptians loved to show and explain what they were doing, in their own way of course : they've represented a snake spitting out its venom on one side of a relief, and just next to it, they've represented the Dendera Light with the same snake inside the bulb, and by doing so they were saying that the Dendera Light was created by the venom of the snake, as a metaphor of the spat water getting out of the fog nozzle, under pressure and in the form of microdroplets.
3.13 The sociological modern drama interpretation of Geb and Nut
"There is speculation between Shu and Geb and who was the first god-king of Egypt. The story of how Shu, Geb, and Nut were separated in order to create the cosmos is now being interpreted in more human terms; exposing the hostility and sexual jealousy. Between the father-son jealousy and Shu rebelling against the divine order, Geb challenges Shu's leadership. Geb takes Shu's wife, Tefnut, as his chief queen, separating Shu from his sister-wife. Just as Shu had previously done to him." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nut_(goddess)
3.14 God of magic Heka's role was "to proclaim the pharaoh's enthronement"
The idea that pharaohs used scientific knowledge to legitimate their position as Kings of Egypt, is exactly what is said about the ancient Egyptian god of Magic, Heka (ḥk3w).
"The Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts depict ḥk3w as a supernatural energy that the gods possess. The "cannibal pharaoh" must devour other gods to gain this magical power. Eventually, Heka was elevated to a deity in his own right, and a cult devoted to him developed. By the time of the Coffin Texts, Heka is said to have been created at the beginning of time by the creator Atum. Later Heka is depicted as part of the tableau of the divine solar barge as a protector of Osiris capable of blinding crocodiles. Then, during the Ptolemaic dynasty, Heka's role was to proclaim the pharaoh's enthronement as a son of Isis, holding him in his arms."
Of course, you'll have noted that Heka is holding snakes : Heka's magic was coming from snakes, meaning that magic was coming from water. Snakes = water.
Remember, Atum is the representation of the small amount of pressurized water coming from the inclined well. Atum is liquid water ready to be transformed into vapor and this is this transformation that is creating the evaporative cold.
When it is said that "Heka existed before duality had yet come into being", the duality is about water. Duality is about liquid water and evaporated water that are engaged into the water cycle depicted into the famous Geb, Shu and Nut scene.
Amun as Amun-Min drawing : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Min_(god)
Stone relief at Wadi Hammamat, Dynasty 17 by kairoinfo4u : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/25999304796/in/photostream/
On the two stone reliefs on the right, Amun as Amun-Min, is clearly referring to water getting out of some kind of tube. These kind of reliefs are exceptional, because they also were clearly made by some kind of "street artist" who took the liberty to show something that is appearing in no other "official" relief I know of. These "unofficial" and probably "forbidden" reliefs are showing the true nature of Amun : he was referring to water droplets, because of the dotted line.
3.15 Amun is the personification of the fog of microdroplets evaporating and creating the cold
Amun, being the fog of liquid microdroplets that was created by the fog nozzle of the horizontal cooling passage, to evaporate and create the cold, is explaining of Amun's epithets : "Great Honker/Great Shrieker" .
"Amun’s many epithets included : Great Honker/Great Shrieker (An allusion to his mythological role as the goose whose cry created the universe)." https://mythopedia.com/topics/amun
This reference to the sound that would have created the pressurized water passing through the fog nozzle, isn't the first one we've seen about the functioning of the nozzle, and that was personified into god Nefertem (Section 1.17).
3.16 The Nefertem "close or not close" reference. From Wikipedia : "Nefertem, possibly "beautiful one who closes" or "one who does not close", (also spelled Nefertum or Nefer-temu) was, in Egyptian mythology, originally a lotus flower at the creation of the world, who had arisen from the primal waters". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nefertem
"Close or not close" is not a bad definition for what was really representing Nefertem : the fog nozzle of the horizontal passage. This nozzle was eventually nothing else than a huge water tap that transformed pressurized water from the inclined well (the ascending passage) into a mist of microdroplets of liquid water. There was no valve though, just the fall of the impactor inside the grand gallery of the Great Pyramid that pressurized the well.
Wadi Hammamat: Dynasty 11, Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II. Photographed by Kairoinfo4U and posted on flickr : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/25932728632/in/photostream/
Heka figurine E4875 from the Louvre Museum : https://collections.louvre.fr/en/ark:/53355/cl010011666
Unmanned RB 6 fog nozzle monitor for firefighting and cooling from Rosenbauer International AG, Leonding, Austria.
"Heka is said to have been created at the beginning of time by the creator Atum."
Diagram of the Great Pyramid of Egypt in operation, before the shutdown procedure and the draining of the inclined well.
3.17 Summary of the study : hidden behind the academic vision of the ancient Egyptian religion, a vast number of metaphors are describing some of the most advanced science and technological knowledge of that time : ancient Egyptian gods were nothing else than pharaohs' metaphoric self-glorifications of their theoretical and experimental scientific accomplishments in physics and chemistry.
Pharaohs used the power of Science to legitimate themselves as kings of Egypt : they forged an entire religion, based on science to rule their kingdom, and they presented that science as Magic.
The end game of this technological program that probably started on the very first Dynasty, was the Great Pyramid of Giza where evaporative cooling was engineered in the known part of the pyramid from the pressurized water produced in the inclined well, known today as the ascending passage.
The evaporative cold simply took advantage of the power of water, and was most probably necessary to cool down chemical manufacturing of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate produced by an ammonia-soda Solvay process, as suggested by the very strong ammonia smell and the limestone kiln in the so-called burial chamber of the Red Pyramid. At that time, sodium carbonate was called natron, and it was the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs (Sections 14, 15 and 16).
The cooling seems to have represented the most difficult part of the process, as suggested by the Step Pyramid's official name : according to scholars, the very first pyramid complex, the Step Pyramid of Djoser, was called "the refreshment of the Gods". No doubt that a more accurate translation would certainly be "the cooling of the Gods".
It means that ancient Egyptians were the first civilization to master a Solvay-like process for sodium carbonate manufacturing, long before it got reinvented in the 1800's in Europe. The key elements of that process is the temperature control of the chemical reactions (the cooling), and the dome shaped plate necessary for the counterflow chemical reactions to occur in an efficient way. That counterflow reaction plate is what really is the disc of Sabu.
As shown with Akhenaten and Nefertiti, the creation of the evaporative cold was the most sacred accomplishment of all (Section 17), and this is exactly what the Dendera Light is all about : the Dendera Light is the fog of microdroplets of liquid water that evaporates and creates the cold. Talking about the snake inside the Dendera Light Bulb : "The field surrounding Ra’s snake form is referred to in ancient Egyptian literature as protective magical energy in liquid form that all gods and pharaohs possess" (Faulkner, Section 2).
Everything that had been done in the Great Pyramid of Giza inspired most of the ancient Egyptian religion, and it had been glorified into what we know today as the Underworld.
The Underworld is referring to the chambers and passages of the Great Pyramid of Khufu, and in particular to the Grand Gallery where a hauling gantry beetle operated a wooden coffin shaped impactor that had a small nested granite block inside it. The impactor generated endlessly, over and over, maybe every 15 minutes the pressurized water that was then transformed into a fog of microdroplets inside the horizontal cooling passage.
The Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid where the act of hauling was done, is the "Secret Hauling Cavern of the Underworld" described in the Amduat "Book of the Hidden Chamber".
The most important chamber of the Great Pyramid wasn't the King's chamber that only was the main water tank of the pyramid, but the Queen's chamber, the only one on the central axis of the pyramid. Because the Queen's chamber was inaccessible from the rest of the pyramid, it was glorified into the "Hidden Chamber of the Underworld" (Section 11), and because the Queen's chamber was the coolest place in the pyramid (about 5°C / 41°F), and with a constant 100% Humidity rate, this chamber was the one where the biggest amount of very hard salt encrustation had been documented by the first explorers of the pyramid in the 1800's and before it had been removed in 1998 by Zahi Hawass (Section 1). Very hard salt encrustation is the signature of the evaporative cooling process, even nowadays.
The most incredible thing is that pretty much everything I've just said, actually appears in one single myth, but it doesn't originate from ancient Egypt : it is the "Churning of the Ocean" Hindu myth that produces the immortal nectar Amrita. The fact is that the endless churning of water that ends up with the production of an elixir that gives eternal life, is exactly what were doing ancient Egyptians in the inclined well : natron was the salt used for the mummification of pharaohs.
Natron gave eternal life to pharaohs, just like the Amrita (Section 19).
The Pyramids of the Cold