The Pyramids of the Cold Section 25 • Hathor and the Operating Cycle of the hauling Beetle

Ancient Egyptian Scarab Beetle God Khepri Isis Thoth Hu Guiding the Deceased

"Hu, the personification of breath and speech with a tongue symbol above his head along with Khepri guiding the deceased, Thoth and Isis". Thanks to Heshbi:


The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023) • Part D: the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid

Section 25 • The Great Cow goddess Hathor and the operating cycle of the hauling Beetle

Great Pyramid of Egypt Giza Pharaoh Khufu Substructure Grand Gallery Ascending Passage 2


In summary: like we've already seen many times now, ancient Egyptians used to consider the same piece of equipment, here the wooden hauling gantry of the Grand Gallery in many ways, and they've glorify it in many deities, depending on which aspect and in particular in which phase of its operating cycle they wanted to point out.

If goddess Neith is the deification of the Hauling beetle giving birth to Ra (meaning getting the wooden impactor Ra out of the inclined well), and Serket the deification of the Beetle giving birth to Horus (getting the composite impactor out of the well), Khepri is the deification of the Beetle hauling the impactor all the way to the top of the Grand Gallery.

In other words, Khepri was the one moving the newly-born sun across the sky.


Again, the Great Pyramid was only the endgame of many generations of scientific research and technological experiments, and this hauling process coupled with a counterweight equipment would most certainly had to be at use also for many generations. I'm always referring to the Great Pyramid, but all these gods and goddesses, for some of them at least, also originated many generations before the Great Pyramid. It is just easier to focus only on the Great Pyramid, but there is of course for some rare deities, a long story before.


Cow Goddess Hathor Sun God Ra Metaphor Deification Great Pyramid of Giza Ancient Egypt Grand Gallery

"Wallis Budge quotes a passage that reads, "I go in like the Hawk, and I come forth like the Bennu", and he goes on to say that the scholion on this passage expressly informs us that the Benu is Osiris: "In essence, the Benu was considered a manifestation of the resurrected Osiris".*


25.01  Hathor, as the hauling Beetle at the top of the Grand Gallery had two major roles:

• Maintain the impactor in a secured position after its hauling

• Release the impactor, on demand (most probably with a quick-release system of some sort)


* "The bird was primarily associated with Atum and Re, but inevitably, its connection with rebirth came to associate it also with Osiris. In quoting from the Book of the Dead, Wallis Budge quotes a passage that reads, "I go in like the Hawk, and I come forth like the Bennu, the Morning Star (i.e., the planet Venus) of Ra; I am the Bennu which is in Heliopolis" and he goes on to say that the scholion on this passage expressly informs us that the Benu is Osiris. In essence, the Benu was considered a manifestation of the resurrected Osiris. […]  Sometimes, it was also depicted wearing the Atef Crown in its aspect as Osiris".


Cow Goddess Hathor Ancient Egypt Column Capital Dendera Temple

Hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera, photographed by A. Parrot:

Hathor column at Dendera:

Hathor columns and breathtaking ceiling at Dendera, by Karen Green:


25.02  The Distant goddess Hathor

If Hathor is represented at the very top of a column capital, it is because Hathor is the deification of the hauling Beetle of the Great Pyramid of Giza, when it is back to the very top of the Grand Gallery, right underneath the top platform after having done its hauling job.

When Hathor is described as "the Distant goddess", it is about the moment when Ra (the impactor) is alone and floating in the inclined well, desperately waiting to be taken in charge for another Hauling cycle to begin.


Sun God Ra Khepri Scarab Beetle Dung Ancient Egyptian Religion


25.03  The scarab beetle god Khepri "moving the newly-born sun across the sky"

Khepri is one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt, even if there was no cult devoted to him. Like every other deity, Khepri is a metaphor; a glorification of one aspect of what happened inside the Great Pyramid of Giza. In that case, Khepri is the glorification of the work realized by the hauling Beetle to get the impactor from the waters of the inclined well (when the impactor was then seen as crocodile god Sobek), to the top of the Grand Gallery where it would have been secured in a locked position.

Khepri is about the rising of the impactor in the Gallery, i.e. the rising of Ra, the wooden part of the impactor.

"In the same way that the beetle pushes large balls of dung along the ground, Khepri moved the newly-born sun across the sky."


"One myth suggested that Khepri pushed the sun across the sky (rather than the sun travelling on the back of a bovine goddess like Nut or Hathor or travelling on a boat). Khepri was often depicted pushing the sun ahead of him and it was thought that this movement was constant. Every night, Khepri would push the sun down into the underworld, and every morning the sun would again emerge and travel across the sky. The word “kheper” means “to emerge” or “to come into being”. […] He is first mentioned in the Pyramid Texts* but may well have been well known for some time before that because crude scarabs have been recovered which date from the Neolithic period (7000-5000 BC). Khepri’s popularity was at its height during the New Kingdom."

*The Pyramid Texts are a collection of funerary inscriptions written on the walls of nine Fifth and Sixth Dynasty pyramids (generally dated to around 2350 B.C.E). The Great Pyramid has been built during the Fourth Dynasty.

Ra-Khepri (solar disc and scarab beetle). Based on New Kingdom tomb paintings:


Ancient Egyptian Goddess Great Cow Hathor Neith Serket Grand Gallery Operating Cycle Hauling Impactor

"In the same way that the beetle pushes large balls of dung along the ground, Khepri moved the newly-born sun across the sky."


25.04  At the very beginning of the hauling process, Neith is the Beetle giving birth to Ra (i.e. hauling the wooden part of the impactor Ra out of the well) and Serket the Beetle giving birth to Horus (i.e. hauling Horus out of the well)

What is beautiful is that ancient Egyptians gave two different names to the Beetle at the exact same moment when the impactor is finally recovered from the waters of the inclined well:

a) When the Hauling beetle gets the wooden part of the impactor Ra out of the well, this is the birth of Ra and the Beetle had been deified into goddess Neith

b) When the Hauling beetle gets the composite impactor Horus out of the well, this is the birth of Horus and the Beetle had then been deified into goddess Serket


a') About Neith and Ra: "As the mother of Ra, in her Mehet-Weret form, she was sometimes described as the "Great Cow who gave birth to Ra".

b') About Serket and Horus: "Serket is sometimes included in the story [the Osiris myth] at this point in her role as protector of the innocent. Isis has a difficult labor and gives birth to Horus in the swamps of the Delta. Serket presides over the birth keeping venomous scorpions and snakes away from the new mother and child. This part of the story would later be cited in Serket's role as protector of women in childbirth and of mothers and children. After Horus' birth, Isis had to continue to hide in the marshes from Set and only went out at night for food. At these times, Serket guarded the baby and sent her scorpions with Isis as her bodyguard".


Statue of Goddess Neith from the Tomb of TUTANKHAMUN Egyptian Museum Cairo Ancient Egypt

Draw of goddess Neith by Jeff Dahl:

"Guardian statue of the goddess Neith from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Egyptian Museum Cairo, photo by Hans Ollermann 2016.


25.05  Neith is the last goddess of the famous four golden statues protecting Tutankhamun's gilded shrine

In the following excerpt about Serket, another goddess is brought to our attention: Neith, the fourth goddess who was protecting the gilded shrine of Tutankhamun.

We've already deciphered Isis (the active Hauling rope), Nephthys (the inactive Hauling rope) and Serket (the Hauling Beetle recovering the impactor seen as Horus), and now we have the last one of the goddesses protecting the shrine: Neith.

"She [Serket] is depicted as nursing the kings of Egypt in the Pyramid Texts, which date to the Old Kingdom (2613-2181 BCE), and one of the protective spells from those texts - known as PT 1375 - reads, "My mother is Isis, my nurse is Nephthys...Neith is behind me, and Serket is before me" (Wilkingson, 233). These four goddesses would later be represented famously in Tutankhamun's tomb on the canopic chest and as gold statues protecting the gilded shrine." […] There is no evidence of temples to Serket in any region of Egypt suggesting to some scholars that she either never had any or, more likely, that she was absorbed into the figures of other deities such as Hathor or Neith, who are equally ancient.


25.06  Neith described as either the mother of Ra, and either the mother of Sobek

When Neith is described as "either" the mother of Ra, "either" the mother of Sobek, she is actually the mother of both at the same time; because as we've already seen in previous Sections, the impactor was both seen as Ra when descending the Grand Gallery, and as Sobek when floating in the inclined well after the impact.

"Either the mother of Ra" and "Either the mother of Sobek", are all about the wooden floating part of the impactor.

"In the form of a cow, she [Neith] was linked to both Nut and Hathor, and in late dynastic times she was regarded as a form of Hathor".

"Sometimes Neith was pictured as a woman nursing a baby crocodile, and she then was addressed with the title, "Nurse of Crocodiles", reflecting a southern provincial mythology in Upper Egypt that she served as either the mother of the crocodile god, Sobek. As the mother of Ra, in her Mehet-Weret form, she was sometimes described as the "Great Cow who gave birth to Ra". As a maternal figure (beyond being the birth-mother of the sun-god Ra), Neith is associated with Sobek as her son (as early as the Pyramid Texts)".

"Neith was associated with Anubis and Wepwawet (Upuaut), because of her epithet “Opener of the Ways”. She was also one of the four goddesses (along with Isis, Nephthys, and Serqet/Selket) who protected the deceased and the canopic jars (which were topped by the four sons of Horus). Neith guarded the east side of the sarcophagus and protected Duamutef (the the jackal-headed god) as he watched over the stomach. Neith was usually depicted as a woman wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, but was occasionally depicted as a cow in connection with her role as the mother of Ra (linking her with Hathor, Hesat, and Bat). Her name links her with the crown of Lower Egypt which was known as “nt” . However, her name is also linked to the word for weaving (‘ntt’) and to one of the words used for water (“nt”). When she is referred to as the creator of the world her name is written using the hieroglyph of an ejaculating phallus, indicating that she was considered as an androgynous creator". Copyright Jenny Hill 2010:


Weaving Loom Warp and Weft

25.07  Neith and the endless weaving metaphor

There is another metaphor about the endless up and down movement of the hauling Beetle in the Grand Gallery, and that is the weaving metaphor, and the endless left to right movement of the shuttle used in a loom.

"As the goddess of creation and weaving, she was said to reweave the world on her loom daily. An interior wall of the temple at Esna records an account of creation in which Neith brings forth the Nun, the first land, from the primeval waters. All that she conceived in her heart comes into being".


25.08  Neith "opening the path" is only about the begining of the hauling process

The idea that Neith is only referring to the begining of the hauling process, is reinforced by the epithet "the Opener of Paths" attributed to this goddess.

"References to Neith as the "Opener of Paths" occurs in Dynasty Four through Dynasty Six, and Neith is seen in the titles of women serving as priestesses of the goddess. Such epithets include: "Priestess of Neith who opens all the (path)ways", "Priestess of Neith who opens the good pathways", "Priestess of Neith who opens the way in all her places".  […] Since Neith also was goddess of war, she thus had an additional association with death: in this function, she shot her arrows into the enemies of the dead".


Statue of Goddess Serket Selket from the Tomb of TUTANKHAMUN Egyptian Museum Cairo Ancient Egypt

"Guardian statue of the goddess Selket [Serket] from the Tomb of Tutankhamun." Egyptian Museum Cairo, photo by Hans Ollermann 2016.   and


25.09  The Serket "Who causes the Throat to breathe" metaphor of the pressurized air forced through the central caisson of the Gallery

The big difference between the composite impactor Horus and its wooden part Ra, is their respective "associate element": when Horus is associated with the air (Horus is often represented in a hawk), Ra is often associated with water (the barque of Ra).

It is most probably because of this association with the air, that Serket has been described as the one "who causes the throat to breathe". Of course, the throat is all about the central caisson of the Grand Gallery.

"She [Serket] is associated with healing, magic, and protection, and her name means "She Who Causes the Throat to Breathe".


25.10  The importance of the central wooden caisson of the Grand Gallery

I need at this time to emphasize one more time how crucial was the role of the central caisson for the entire operating of the Great Pyramid: if you don't get rid of the moist air produced during each cycle, the evaporative cooling stops right away. The evaporative cooling needs dry air to work, so that as much water can be forced into it.

Without the caisson, there wouldn't be any "cleaning" of that moist air.

The impactor worked inside the caisson just like a bicycle pump: it pressurized the air that was forced through the wooden structure, and then forced towards the evaporative cooling passage. In some ways, the central caisson looked like a throat, hence the "She Who Causes the Throat to Breathe" metaphor, about Serket (the Hauling beetle releasing the impactor).

By releasing the impactor in the central caisson, Serket caused the "throat" to breathe.


25.11  The Seven Scorpions of Isis... who really belong to Serket

"One of the most popular stories concerning Isis is known as Isis and the Seven Scorpions. It relates how, when Horus was an infant and Isis was hiding him in the swamp lands, Serket had seven scorpions keep her company."

The myth about Isis and the seven scorpions is confusing because it could let us think that the scorpions are belonging to Isis herself; but it is not: the seven scorpions belong to Serket.

Serket is the key, and she is actually at the center of the story, because she appears in the myth when Horus "was an infant" who was "hidden in the swamp lands".

What it is describing is the impactor Horus the child hidden in the inclined well (that is Sobek), and waiting to be hauled back up to the top of the Gallery. In order to do that, the Beetle could only be at the top of the Gallery itself.

It simply confirms that Serket is the Hauling beetle ready to haul the impactor Horus out of the darkness of the inclined well waters; and that is the birth of Horus.


Djoser Djeser Pharaoh Dynasty Step Pyramid Complex Refreshment of the Gods Ancient Egypt

Figures of Horus from the Louvre Museum, Paris.   DUT162: and E3752:

Evaporative cooling applications webpage screenshot : AquaFog® from Jaybird Manufacturing Inc (Pennsylvania, USA):


25.12  Serket... and the "Refreshment of the Gods" complex of pharaoh Djoser

The fact that ancient Egyptians were really creating cold by mastering basic laws of physics, has already been mentioned in this work: the very first pyramid complex built by pharaoh Djoser was indeed called "the Refreshment of the Gods".

"Of course, Imhotep is most famous as the builder of Djoser’s unprecedented step pyramid complex, called the “The Refreshment of the Gods.” Imhotep designed this complex on a scale that surpassed everything achieved by his predecessors."

If this "Refreshment of the Gods" translation from the ancient Egyptian language, would most probably gain in being called "the Cooling of the Gods", the "Refresh" word can be directly linked to Serket herself:

"Qebehsenuef (Qbḥ-sn.w⸗f) was the falcon-headed son of Horus, and protected the intestines of the deceased. He was in turn protected by the goddess Serket. It appears that his role was to refresh the dead person, and his name means literally "he who libates his siblings". Horus commands him, "Come refresh my father; betake yourself to him in your name of Qebehsenuef. You have come that you may make coolness for him after you ... "


"You have come that you may make coolness for him after you": is a perfect illustration of "the Pyramids of the Cold".


25.13  When Osiris and Horus are directly associated with "cooling" and "cold water"

"Osiris N, take this fresh water, cooled for you by Horus, in your name of He-who-is-come-from-the-fresh-water". […] "The most complete ancient work in existence of the myth of Osiris which we know is that of Plutarch, in his 'De Iside et Osiride'. We know the stratagem used by Seth and his associates, and we know how the conspirator, having locked Osiris precisely by guile in a chest made to his measurements, threw it into the sea, an episode which Plutarch is the only one to relate, began the mourning and the quest of Isis. […] Osiris is designated as the one who had been "put in a chest (deben), in a box and in a bag".Nadine GUILHOU: Les deux morts d'Osiris, d'après les textes des Pyramides.

Extracted from the magazine "Egypte", N°10, August 1998:


"But I am parched with thirst and I perish. Give me quickly the cold water flowing forth from the Lake of Memory".

Delia, D. (1992). The Refreshing Water of Osiris, page 189. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 29, 181–190.


Egyptian Goddess Hathor and Thor God of Thunder Norse Magical Hammer Great Serpent Great Hall of Bilskinir

More on the total reinterpretation of the operation of the Great Pyramid of Egypt in the Norse mythology in Section 22 (the fog of cold, the well of Hvergelmir, the Great Hall of the largest building ever constructed...).


25.14  The similarity of the names of Thor and Hathor is not accidental: Thor really "is" Hathor (the Hauling beetle)

If Thor's "magical" hammer which always gets back to him "somehow" is the reinterpretation of the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza, and Thor himself the One who is throwing the hammer, should I say "releasing" the hammer, then it means that Thor is actually Hathor: the Hauling beetle at the top of the Gallery and releasing the impactor.

The similarity of the names of Thor and Hathor is not accidental: they are both about the same thing. Thor and Hathor are glorifications of the Hauling beetle of the Great Pyramid, releasing the impactor.

• Thor is endlessly throwing his "magical" hammer onto the Great Serpent Jörmungandr (into the water), and it comes back every time.

• Hathor is endlessly releasing her "magical" impactor onto the Great Serpent of the Underworld Apep (also into the primordial waters), and it comes back every time as well.

In other words: Thor = HaThor


Operating diagram of the Great Pyramid of Egypt with 14 Girdle Stones for Evaporative Cold Production and chemical manufactirung of Natron Solvay process June 23 2023

Diagram of the operating Great Pyramid of Egypt for evaporative cold production (hypothetically for chemical manufacturing cooling of pure sodium carbonate "natron", the salt used for the mummification of pharaohs). When in operation, the elevation of the Great Pyramid was not finished, and it is only after the shutdown procedure and the draining of the inclined well, that the 3 granite plugs were finally close to one another.



© 2023 Copyright All rights reserved.

The Pyramids of the Cold v2 by French Egyptologist Layman Bruno Coursol Hauling Beetle Scarab Great Pyramid of Giza


The Pyramids of the Cold version 2 (May 2023 - March 2024)

Summary of the study and Table of Contents


Part A: The evaporative cooling process

Section 1 • The horizontal evaporative cooling passage layout

Section 2 • The Dendera Light and the creation of the fog of microdroplets by the fog nozzle

Section 3 • The water cycle glorifying metaphors: Geb, Shu, Nut, Tefnut

Section 4 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process by Akhenaten and Nefertiti

Section 5 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process in the Weighing of the Heart


Part B • The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 6 • The inclined well layout and the girdle stones

Section 7 • The Taweret "Lady of the Well" temporary sealing granite plug of the well

Section 8 • The Bes temporary wedging block immobilizing Taweret

Section 9 • The draining of the well

Section 10 • The Great Serpent Apep and the snake water metaphors

Section 11 • The Was scepter and the control over "snakes"

Section 12 • The beating Heart of the Great Pyramid


Part C • The composite impactor of the Great Pyramid (Horus, Ra, Osiris, Medjed, Sobek...)

Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris

Section 14 • The endlessly immersed Osiris stone and the seed metaphor

Section 15 • The Anubis sledge and the bobsled mask

Section 16 • The sledge runners of the impactor: Thoth

Section 17 • Medjed: the smiter nobody can ever see

Section 18 • The Apis bull and the ramming impactor's metaphors

Section 19 • The crocodile god Sobek impactor (more or less) floating in the waters of the well

Section 20 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone rising from water


Part D • The Grand Gallery's of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 21 • The Sacred "sloping paths" of the "oval-shaped cavern of the act of Hauling"

Section 22 • The central wooden caisson of the Gallery: Sekhmet and the Triad of Memphis

Section 23 • The hauling ropes of the Grand Gallery: Isis, Nephthys, Hatmehit, Wadjet and Nekhbet

Section 24 • The hauling Beetle and the Seven Scorpions of Isis

Section 25 • The Great Cow goddess Hathor and the operating cycle of the hauling Beetle

Section 26 • The 10 operating phases of the Grand Gallery

Section 27 • The guide to the Afterlife for the smart traveler and the canopic jars

Section 28 • The scarab amulet glorifications of the hauling Beetle


Part E • The very large and roughly finished sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 29 • The biosand filter sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 30 • The Elephantine Triad deification of the biosand filter of the Great Pyramid

Section 31 • The Great Pyramid's operating flat roof and the water supply issue


Part F • Chemical manufacturing and industrial cooling before the Great Pyramid

Section 32 • The Serdab and the "Refreshment of the Gods" Step Pyramid of Djoser

Section 33 • Sneferu's Red Pyramid and the accumulated ammonia

Section 34 • The Disc of Sabu and the Solvay process for pure natron manufacturing


Part G • The tremendous impact of the Great Pyramid on the whole ancient world

Section 35 • The hidden secrets of the Hermetica Emerald Tablet (around 1600 C.E.)

Section 36 • Thor and the magical Hammer in the Great Hall of Bilskirnir

Section 37 • The Churning of the waters of the Ocean of Milk (Hindu mythology)

Section 38 • The Tibetan prayer wheels and the Grand Gallery's operation

Section 39 and Conclusion • The cooling water of spitting Kebechet


Part H • Epilogue

Section 40 • The smiting Ark of the Covenant and the Ten Commandments

Section 41 • The 293 kilograms windlass Staff of Moses and Aaron... and the First Plague of Egypt: water turning into blood

Section 42 • Ezekiel's Four Egyptian pulley "Wheels within the Wheels" and the four angel ropes

Section 43 • David, Saul, two giant Goliaths, five little stones, an aeolian harp... and a weaver's beam

Section 44 • The holy water fonts and the biosand filter


Part I • The magicians of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 45 • The Legend of Khufu and the "magician" polymath Imhotep

Section 46 • The two magical eyes of Isis and the brilliant but painful flame of her twin sister's braids


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