The Pyramids of the Cold Section 9 • The draining of the inclined well of the Great Pyramid

Great Pyramid of Khufu Giza Gizeh Caliph Al-Mamun Forced Entry Tunnel Entrance Cavity Ascending Passage Ancient Egypt

Photograph of the cavity of Al-Ma'mun : "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar, 1910":

Gibson Dam Spillway. Brian Hollis rappels into Gibson Dam glory hole spillway. Photo by Joe Rohde:


The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023) • Part B: the inclined well of the Great Pyramid

Section 9 • The draining of the inclined well

Great Pyramid of Khufu Giza Gizeh Operation of the First Ascending Passage Taweret Big Lady of the Well Draining Tomb Ancient Egypt 2


In summary: at the end of the period of operation of the Great Pyramid and the shutdown procedure, the inclined well had to be drained out of its water, because all the equipment like the copper plate cold exchanger from the Queen's chamber, the Hauling Beetle, the impactor and the central wooden caisson, they all had to be taken out of the pyramid.

Their only chance to do it, was to use the inclined well as a passage out of the pyramid, and for that to happen, they had to drain the well: they had to remove the water, and redirect it towards the subterranean chamber, passing through the cavity supposedly digged by Al-Ma'mun.

The draining of the well was triggered when extra pressure was applied to the Bes wedging block, most probably by filling up the central wooden caisson with water.


When the upper protruding part of the wedging block broke, the upper granite plug Taweret which had been the bottom sealing block of the well during the entire operating time of the Pyramid, was released and propelled onto the intermediate granite plug which then immobilized Taweret before hitting the real plug of the structure, Beset.


The most remarkable part of the draining procedure of the well, is that it had actually been triggered from the grotto of the pyramid. As incredible as it sounds, the only purpose of the grotto is to provide shelter to a designated man or a volunteer who would probably have released the waters of the King's chamber, precisely from the shelter of the grotto.

Most probably, it is by a simple rope that the man in the grotto, released the impactor for a very last time (with or without the wooden part Ra), which in turn would have released the waters of the King chamber. The shelter in the grotto was to protect one against some of that water passing through the well-shaft of the grotto.


Great Pyramid of Khufu Kheops Giza Gizeh Egypt Caliph Al-Mamun Forced Entry Tunnel Entrance Cavity Passage Rubbers

The cavity of Al-Ma'mun only served the purpose of collecting the inclined well waters for the shutdown procedure of the pyramid. The draining of the well was triggered by the breaking of the wedging block (represented in the Bes deity) that was supporting what is now known as the upper granite plug of the ascending passage, and that was represented in the Taweret hippopotamus deity.

Photograph of the cavity of Al-Ma'mun : "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar, 1910" : Plate LXIV, page 166:


9.01  The Al-Ma'mun cavity was the water collector for the waters of the well

"Another good job completed yesterday, was the cutting of notches for the feet and hands in the part by which one climbs alongside the Granite Plug up to the First Ascending Passage. When we desire to ascend this passage, -we leave the Descending Passage by the hole forced on its right or west side by Caliph Al Mamoun, about ninety feet down from the Entrance. This hole is in line with the front of the granite stone which lies on the floor of the Descending Passage, The limestone block, "which now rests against the upper end of the granite stone (Plate IX), forms a convenient step by which to gain entrance, for the lower edge of the hole is about two feet up from the floor of the Descending Passage. From here the forced hole tends upward and west- ward Into a large cavernous space about twelve feet in height. Communicating with this space at the upper portion of its north-westward side is the inner or southern extremity of the long passage which Al Mamoun caused to be excavated from the north face of the Pyramid Plate V. In order to reach the upper end of the Granite Plug, and so ascend the First Ascending Passage, we require to scale the south-east wall of this cavernous space. During my first week here, I secured two photographs showing Hadji Ali Gabri climbing this wall — Plates LXIV and LXV. In both of these he is seen standing "with one foot on a ledge which is situated about three feet above the loose, sandy floor of the space, and the other in a notch. By taking advantage of this ledge and of the notches, we made the ascent at that time without undue difficulty. But now that we have had fresh notches cut, and the old ones deepened, the ascent and descent are much easier. One of the photographs (Plate LXV) presents a near view of the ledge, and also shows the lower end of the First Ascending Passage to better advantage than the other."

Excerpt from Morton Edgar, in "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1", by John and Morton Edgar, 1910, paragraph ref. 328, page 167


Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza Ancient Egypt Draining of the Inclined Well

Hatshepsut’s birth scene, from Édouard Naville "The Temple of Deir el Bahari" (London, 1896), volume. 2, plate. 50. Image courtesy of the University Library Heidelberg, "The Ebony shrine, northern half of the middle platform":


First Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza Caliph Al Mamun Ancient Egypt Draining of the Inclined Well

The diagram of the girdle stones layout in the ascending passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza, functioning as a flooded inclined well. Photograph from tomb KV 11 of Ramesses III, side chamber, image # 21076 by Matjaz Kacicnik, courtesy of ARCE, American Research Center in Egypt in partnership with the American University in Cairo Egyptology Department:

During the entire operating period of the pyramid, the bottom of the inclined well was sealed by the Taweret blog : the upper granite plug. Taweret was maintained in position by a wedging block presenting an easy to break protruding part, getting out of the floor of the well. The breaking of that fragile part released the Taweret block and the waters of the well were drained through the dormant breach, between the Girdle Stones G8 and G9.


9.02  The lower end-to-end girdles are arranged in 2 sets with different orientations

When you look attentively to the drawing of the Edgar brothers (plate CXXVIII), showing the girdle imprints on the floor of the passage (red and green short lines), you can see something absolutely amazing: these girdle stones were arranged in 2 sets of girdles, and that these 2 sets were positioned at a different angle to the vertical axis.

This particular layout reveals a dormant breach, just waiting to be opened up, and it is located right where the Al Ma'mun cavity has been digged.


Great Pyramid of Khufu Giza Gizeh Ancient Egypt Caliph Al-Mamun Forced Entry Tunnel Entrance Cavity Ascending Passage

Photograph of the cavity of Al-Ma'mun: "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar, 1910":

The spillway "Glory Hole" at Monticello Dam, Lake Berryessa, in operation, February 19, 2017, California. Photograph by Jeremybrooks:


9.03  The breach opening for the shutdown procedure of the pyramid

The 2 sets of girdles with different orientations are opening up to reveal a dormant breach. More amazing is that at the exact location where the breach is positioned, we can find a tiny squared imprint in the floor with a granite plug still stuck inside, and on the other side of the wall is the huge Al-Ma'mun cavity, leading to the subterranean part of the Great Pyramid.

My guess is that this particular layout was designed to drain the well for the shutdown procedure of the pyramid : a small granite block would have been positioned in the small imprint (colored in blue on the drawing), placed against the wall, directly next to the dormant breach.

This is Petrie talking about the part just ahead (south) of the granite plugs: "The present top one is not the original end ; it is roughly broken, and there is a bit of granite still cemented to the floor some way farther South of it". Source: The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh par W. M. Flinders Petrie. Chapter: Ascending Passage, page 21.


When time has come to shut the pyramid down, the impactor is lifted up to the top of the grand gallery one last time, unless this time there is no float anymore. When the impactor is released and enter the inclined well, it doesn't pop back up to the surface but sink to the bottom of the well with high velocity. When it hits the granite plug block n°3 that was dormant all along by this small granite block in the imprint, it opens the breach and all the water is drained trough the cavity of Al-Ma'mun.

The draining of the well was necessary in order to empty completely the pyramid of all its content. More about it farther below, same post (dormant breach, little imprint, draining of the well into the cavity of Al-Ma'mun...).


Great Pyramid of Giza King Khufu Egypt Ancient Egypt Caliph Al Ma Mun Forced Entry Ascending Passage

The original shape of the Bes wedging block of the inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

On this incredible picture, the wedging block is actually represented twice : not only we have the original design of the real block, but we have also its metaphorical representation in the god Bes. Image courtesy of Dosseman, from Two Bes-shaped legs for a bed, wood, New Kingdom:


9.04  The actual original design of the Bes wedging block

More than just being able to validate the couple Taweret/Bes as the 2 blocks sealing the inclined well, we can do even better and have a pretty good idea of the real design of the Bes wedging block, thanks to the "Two Bes-shaped legs for a bed", at the Allard Pierson Museum and Knowledge Institute in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

As I have already said, the simple solution that I came up with, is most certainly wrong or at least incomplete.

The major problem is that the little imprint in the floor of the well between G8 and G9 is located against the West wall. If my idea was correct, this imprint would have been located right in the middle of the width of the well, so that there wouldn't have been any force applied against the wall.

Obviously, something is missing, and the wedging block was only part of the solution, but at least, we can start with something and we now also have what is most probably very close to the real original design of that wedging block: a very large base (A) that would have anchored the block into the floor of the well, and a very fragile protruding upper part (B), that was immobilizing the Taweret block, but which was also ready and easy to break on demand.


9.05  How to break the Bes wedging block through the central caisson of the Grand Gallery

The key to understand how was drained the inclined well, is the central wooden caisson of the Grand Gallery: you simply have to fill up the caisson with water, to increase the pressure on the Bes wedging block, until it reaches its resistance limit and finally breaks.

We've seen that the Bes wedging block had been designed with a very fragile protruding part on which the Taweret block was resting during the entire operating time of the Great Pyramid. The resistance of this protruding part of the block had to be perfectly calibrated to sustain the pressure induced by the waters of the inclined well in operation, but at the same time to break under certain amount of added water.

This is how the wedging block was broken and the draining of the well triggered, without even having access to the block itself: they simply increased the pressure on the block with water.


Great Pyramid of Giza the Grotto Kheops Gizeh Ancient Egypt Shelter

The shelter in the grotto of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

"Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar 1910" page 276:


9.06  The shelter in the grotto and the triggering of the draining of the well

Now, the problem is to understand how was triggered the flooding of the central caisson; because will see that during the entire operating period of the Great Pyramid (the creation of the cold), the pyramid's elevation had stopped at the level of the Gantenbrink's "door", it wouldn't have been a problem to do easily do the job at that moment; but if the draining of the well had to be triggered once the Great Pyramid was completely finished, and someone had to stay inside the structure for that matter, then we can understand why there is a grotto inside the pyramid.

If you look at the grotto with an open mind, what is striking is that everything looks like it has been designed so that one person could find a shelter in this grotto: a shelter elevated from the entry of the grotto and at the opposite of that entry, with the masonry protecting the shelter part.

This Great Pyramid grotto thing reminds me of the Geb, Shu and Nut scene, where nothing can be understood without having water in mind. Nut cannot be understood without water, as the similarity with Tefnut's name ('tf'= to spit and 'nwt'=water) and the water pot emblem of Nut can suggest. The exact same way, to understand the design of the grotto, you do need to add water.

More precisely, the grotto has been designed fearing water: the grotto is a shelter from water coming down the vertical well shaft. This is the reason why there is a deep hole in the floor to accumulate the water and preserve the upper part of the grotto.

This upper part has another particular design: its end part has been set the further away to the doorway as possible; the doorway East wall protecting the very last end of this upper part. This is a perfect design of a shelter, the further away from the doorway in an elevated section with a protective retention basin at the entrance.

What would be the reason for this shelter if it wasn't for protecting someone from water? There is even a "deep hole" that would have worked as a protective basin for when water would have got in; a basin which would have slowly emptied itself because it has been dug into natural rock: the "deep hole" in the grotto isn't part of the built pyramid.

And if this shelter was meant to protect someone from water getting in the grotto, would it be because of any other reason than for the draining of the well procedure? I seriously doubt it.

In my opinion, someone had to stay inside the Great Pyramid in order to trigger the draining of the well, and that is what the famous scene of the Dendera ceiling is all about.


The Great Pyramid of Giza Khufu Ascending Passage Granite Plug Apis Bull Taweret Lady of the Well

The representation of the releasing of the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza, for the inclined well draining procedure.

Burial chamber relief, tomb of Seti I, KV17 in the Valley of the Kings. Photograph thanks to kairoinfo4u:


9.07  The falcon headed man pulling the rope and triggering the draining of the well

The first thing to see on the above relief from the KV17 tomb of Seti I, is that the Apis bull is blocked in his progression by what looks like kind of a paper clip: the bull's third hoof is stuck by this paper clip like element.

But this situation is not permanent: if the falcon headed man pulls down the rope he is holding to, then we can easily imagine that the paper clip thing flattens itself… and the Apis bull gets released. This part of the relief is all about the release of the Apis bull, who then pulls 2 ropes which are pulling up an element stuck into the ground. This element is then pulled out of the ground, and the "secret pouring hole" of Taweret is revealed. The water flow can now start.

In other words, this relief is all about the draining of the inclined well.


Great Pyramid of Giza Khufu Grotto Pharaon Kheops Gizeh

The representation of the releasing of the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza, for the inclined well draining procedure, triggered from the grotto of the pyramid.

Photograph of the grotto inside the Great Pyramid of Giza: Plate CLI page 278 in "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar, 1910":


9.08  The falcon headed man laid flat on the ground and on his back... in the grotto

If someone triggered the last impactor release from inside the grotto, he would have been laid flat on the ground, right behind its opening and on the raised floor of the grotto.

If we look closely, we can even see that the grotto of the Great Pyramid is also suggested around the falcon headed man… unless it is pure coincidence that the ropes are drawn the way they are, forming a perfect virtual enclosure around him.


Emerald Tablet Hermetica Text Hermes Greek God of Science Thoth Heinrich Khunrath Ancient Egypt

"An imaginative 17th-century depiction of the Emerald Tablet from the work of Heinrich Khunrath (1560-1605)":


9.09  The 1606 Emerald Tablet representation of the draining of the inclined well of the Great Pyramid

If the Hermetica texts are very "obscure", the above illustration made by Heinrich Khunrath in the 17th century is a lot more interesting, because believe it or not, as crazy as it looks like, the guy more than 400 years ago depicted the entire sequence of the operation of the inclined well, starting with the biosand filter "sarcophagus" to the draining of the well into the Al-Ma'mun cavity. How about that!

It is actually weird, because it all starts at the extreme right side of the picture, and then "chronologically", the operating cycle is described little by little, by simply going towards the center of the image where is the mountain, which by the way is getting very close to look like a pyramid.

• at the extreme right is the representation of the biosand filter, in its dedicated little "grotto" (the "electric room").

• then is the representation of the Grand Gallery with its hauling slope and the hauling horse (in 17th century Germany, horses were most probably better illustrations of hauling animals than the ancient Egyptian cows).

• then is the representation of what triggered the draining of the well with these 2 big and one small rocks inside the water flow. The upper big rock is of course Taweret, released from its original position when the wedging block broke under increased pressure (they most probably simply flooded the central wooden caisson to increase the water height, hence the pressure onto Taweret); of course the little rock in between the two big rocks, is the upper part of the broken Bes wedging block; and finally we have the second big rock, the "shock absorber" block deified into "the Savior" by ancient Egyptians: look how "proud" it looks like, waiting to do its job, standing in front of the two other ones.

And to show that the little block was initially supposed to be a fixed wedging block, it has even been set onto a little flat area within the river.

• finally, we have the draining of the well itself, in a perfect representation of the Al-Ma'mun cavity and its distinguishable shape of a funnel.


Emerald Tablet Hermetica Texts Hermes Ancient Egyptian God of Science Thoth Houghton Heinrich Khunrath Amphitheatrvm Sapientiae Aeternae

The draining of the well in the Emerald Tablet (Heinrich Khunrath, Germany, 1606)


9.10  All the operation of the inclined well is reproduced in the Emerald Tablet

You will note that on the Emerald Tablet, the draining of the well sequence had been split in two "columns": on the right column is the triggering of the draining with Taweret blocked by the little Bes wedging block standing on a little platform, and just below is the immobilizing "Savior" block; and on the left column is the draining itself in the funnel of the Al-Ma'mun cavity.

Even more on the right part of the image, you'll have recognized the biosand filter receiving water from the "mountain", the gentle slope of the Grand Gallery with the horse which is representing the same thing than the Hauling beetle cows (Hathor and Mehet-Weret), because in 1606 Germany horses were used for hauling instead of the ancient Egyptian cows.

Finally, on the bank of the river you'll have recognized the "shade" of the three granite plugs of the lower part of the inclined well, and you'll have noticed that the lowest granite plug, that is Beset, isn't in the river as well: not only Beset never moved an inch, but it hasn't even been "active" and directly or indirectly involved with the water of the well. This is why the representation of Beset is only on the bank of the river, and not in the river like the two over granite blocs.


Hermetica Greek God Hermes Ancient Texts Egyptian Thoth of Science Emerald Tablet Heinrich Khunrath

For more, please read the dedicated Section of the Emerald Tablet:


9.11  The problem of the King's chamber shafts

The question now is to imagine the entire sequence of the draining of the well, starting with the person who would have get inside the grotto, and trigger the all thing.

Once inside the shelter, this person pulls down a rope connected to the impactor, resting at the top part of the Gallery. The impactor is released for the last time, and start to slide down the slope, like usual. But this time, the impactor is also connected to the King's chamber closing apparatus and it results in the release of the waters of the King' chamber.

This scenario of the draining of the well, involving the waters of the King's chamber to increase the pressure at the bottom of the well and the breaking off of the wedging block, does also solve another problem I couldn't figure out until now : the presence of the 2 shafts leading to the King's chamber.


If I'm right about the fact that when the pyramid was in operation, the elevation was stopped around the level of the Lady Arbuthnot's chamber (please read the Section on the sarcophagus), then the question is what would these shafts been implemented for?


9.12  The elevation sequence of the Great Pyramid construction and the Al-Ma'mun "forced entry tunnel"

Thanks to the understanding of the Al-Ma'mun tunnel, we can reconstruct the main sequence of events of the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza: 

1 • The construction of the pyramid is stopped at the level of Lady Arbuthnot's chamber

2 • The pyramid is then fully operational and serves for weeks, months or years, but only when the inundation of the Nile is high enough (it probably explains the presence of the Nilometers)

3 • When the pyramid is not needed anymore, the elevation starts again and the structure is finalized.

4 • During the following inundation period of the Nile, the draining of the well can be realized.

5 • A passage to the granite plugs is digged from the outside of the pyramid and the entire equipment of the pyramid can be taken out. This passage is the "forced entry passage" supposedly digged by Al-Ma'mun.


Egyptian God Horus the Child Savior Magical Stelae on Crocodiles Bes

Magical Stela or Cippus of ancient Egyptian god Horus the Child "The Savior", 332–280 B.C.E (Ptolemaic Period) from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New-York:

Draw of the Metternich stela, by E. A. Budge "The Gods of the Egyptians 2" (1904). Original at the Metropolitan Museum of Art : Magical Stela (Cippus of Horus), 360–343 B.C.E. Late Period:


9.13  Horus the Child "The Savior" is the shock absorber block of the inclined well designed to immobilize Taweret for the draining of the well: under Bes and without even touching the "floor"

Until today, I perfectly described Bes and Taweret as representations of the wedging block that maintained in position the bottom of the inclined well block. This couple stayed in place during the entire operating of the Great Pyramid. For the draining of the well, water height was augmented and the pressure broke the wedging block.

But if nothing had been done to stop Taweret, the block would have destroyed the real bottom of the ascending passage (the lower granite plug number 1), and the descending passage would have been inoperable: the man that triggered the whole thing from the inside of the shelter of the grotto wouldn't have been able to exit the pyramid.

So, a shock absorber block had been implemented right under the Bes block. This so particular block would have just been set in position "free" so to speak: it was designed to move freely in the bottom of the passage, for maybe no more than a couple of meters or so, and absorb the energy of Taweret, pushed by an enormous pressure due to water.

Another way of saying it, is that this absorber shock block wasn't touching the real floor of the well: from the inclined well point of view, this block was only in contact with its walls. The floor of the ascending passage is not the floor of the inclined well: it is just a wall.

So, the shock absorber block was set under Bes, and it didn't touch the floor so it could move freely against the walls of the well. Well, that is precisely what the Magical Stelae is all about : Horus the Child "The Savior" is set right under Bes' head and he doesn't touch the floor.

Horus the Child as "The Savior" is shown striding on top of crocodiles, only because he wasn't supposed to touch the floor.

His epithet "The Savior" could be referring to the fact he protected the integrity of the well, or the man in the grotto in some way.


9.14  The profound meaning of the so-called Horus the child "without energy" simple tool

This is not the first time we are seeing this: here, in this particular representation of Horus the child, the only reason why it precisely is this deity that had been chosen to represent the immobilizing block, is about what we can call "lack of energy", or "lack of power".

Horus the child is the deification of the impactor Horus, but only in the phase of its operating cycle when he doesn't have the energy needed to accomplish his task in ramming into the well: Horus the child is simply Horus "without his energy".

And this is the reason why we also find Horus the child in this position, under the head of Bes: he is simply used, again, as a simple tool, or a coding color that is indicating "without energy": the shock absorber block was simply there, during the entire operation of the Great Pyramid, just waiting, and doing nothing, just like it was sleeping in the passage.

In other words, Horus the child and the Horus the child so-called "The Savior" are about two totally different pieces of equipment, both "caught" in a moment of their own operating cycle, where they don't have any (or not enough) energy yet; but they both will get it in the next phase of their own cycle. One was mainly operated in the Grand Gallery, when the other one was at the bottom of the well, right under Bes.


Great Pyramid of Khufu Giza Operation of the Inclined Well Ascending Passage Granite Plug Block Caliph Al Mamun Ancient Egypt

The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza, in period of operation (before the shutdown procedure and the draining of the well).


9.15  Taweret is the representation of the draining of the well because of the water breaking metaphor

The draining of the inclined well would have result in a huge amount of water gushing out of the bottom of the well after the upper granite plug had moved down and revealed the breach.

The metaphor with the water breaking is the origin of Taweret as the goddess of childbirth.

"In Ancient Egyptian religion, Taweret is the protective ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility. The deity is typically depicted as a bipedal female hippopotamus with feline attributes, pendulous female human breasts, the limbs and paws of a lion, and the back and tail of a Nile crocodile.[...] She commonly bears the epithets "Lady of Heaven", "Mistress of the Horizon", "She Who Removes Water", "Mistress of Pure Water", and "Lady of the Birth House" [...] The name "Taweret" (Tȝ-wrt) means "she who is great" or simply "great one". Source:


As clearly said by Anneke Stracke in her thesis "The Hippopotamus of Deir el-Medina", goddess Taweret was clearly associated with water:

Excerpt from page 30 of her thesis : "Of the twelve objects within this catalogue that include hieroglyphic epithets of Taweret… three of them make clear mention of her role as a goddess of water. While it is not unthinkable that a hippopotamus goddess should be associated with water, it is still quite unusual that a quarter of all epithets of the goddess which survive from Deir el-Medina feature this role so heavily. The epithets preserved in Deir el-Medina refer to “the pure water”, “lady of the well” and “Taweret, who is in the midst of the purification waters of Nun”.


In short, some of Taweret's epithets are : "the Lady of the Well", "the Big One", "the Great One" and "She Who Removes Water", and she is referring to the upper granite plug (block #3).

In other words, Taweret is the upper granite plug : "The Great One", "The Big One", "The Lady of the Well" and "She Who Removes Water".


Magic Stele Ancient Egypt Bes Horus the Child Savior Taweret Sa Symbol

Magical Stele 1991.642, at the Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge:


9.16  The magic stele representing all at the same time Bes, Horus the child called "The Savior" and Taweret

"This stele combines a "cippus of Horus" with a representation of the hippopotamus goddess Taweret. It is topped by the grotesque face of the protective dwarf god Bes. Horus the Child, with a sidelock indicating his young age, stands on two crocodiles and subdues other wild animals: snakes, scorpion, gazelle, and lion. He is flanked by his mother, Isis, and the falcon-headed Horus. In the lower register appears a fierce, pregnant hippopotamus with pendulous breasts and a crocodile’s tail. This is Taweret, who protected expectant mothers and young children. The Horus cippus occurred both as a stone stele and in amulet form and was normally inscribed with spells protecting against snake bites and scorpion stings. Although the spells are missing here, the stele need not have been ineffective. It is thought that the cippi were rubbed and that the water poured over them was drunk or applied for curative purposes."  

Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge:


9.17  The water poured onto Magical Stelae…

In a next Section I'm talking about the fact that ancient Egyptians used to hide things way better than the Hindu mythology did, but apparently something started to change in the very late period, and water started to be used in Egyptians rituals, pretty much the same way that water was used in the rituals.

" Cippi, or magical stelae, represent Horus’s healing from scorpion stings and snakebites in the marshes. Egyptians believed that a liquid poured over a magical stela could absorb and transfer the power of the stela’s spells and images to the worshipper. Traditional Egyptian magic and religion such as this thrived throughout the fourth and third centuries B.C.E. despite the largely non-Egyptian origin of the country’s rulers at that time."

Could it be possible that because Egypt was ruled at that time mostly by pharaohs who weren't born in the country, that the constant use of water in Hindu rituals influenced Egyptian religion?


9.18  … and the vomiting serpent

We've seen in a previous Section that the Great Serpent Apep (Apophis) was the metaphoric glorification of the pressurized waters of the inclined well and that a small amount of it was redirected towards the evaporative cooling passage, every 10 or 15 minutes or so. That sequential ejection of pressurized water is exactly what is describing Magical Steala with the vomiting snake metaphor.

We also have here the same story than in the Churning of the Ocean: a god that is healing poison burn.


"The main function of the Metternich Stela was for the magical healing of poisons, mostly caused by animals. Water was poured over the Stela and collected. The water from the Stela was then drunk by the person suffering from the poisonous ailment. That person would identify with the child Horus who had also suffered such tragedies. During the entire process religious rites from the Stela were recited by local priests.

The first few spells on the stela are related to reptiles and other harmful creatures. The most prominent was the serpent demon Apophis who was the enemy of Ra for he is the equivalent of the devil. The spell forced the serpent to decapitate and burn into pieces. The second half of the spell would force the serpent to vomit and while the priest recited this spell the person inflicted would also vomit freeing their body of the poison.

The next spell was directed towards a cat. The cat contained a bit of a god or goddess and would be able to destroy any sort of poison. The spell asks for Ra to aid the cat in her time of need.

Most of the Stela has inscriptions that describe stories such as the ones above in relation to being poisoned and spells to be cured.",History,most%20complete%20of%20this%20kind.


Great Pyramid of Giza Sobek Ancient Egyptian God Nile Crocodile African River

Ancient Egyptian god Sobek as a Nile crocodile with ram's horns. Both of these attributes are referring to the impactor of the Grand Gallery which was plunging into the waters of the well like a crocodile and ramming into them with tremendous power.


9.19  The crocodile putting its weight upon Taweret and forcing her to move

In this Apis and Taweret relief from the tomb of Seti I, we've just seen that Apis is a representation of the recess granite block of the impactor, released from the top of the Grand Gallery, and that Taweret is representing the upper granite block that was sealing the bottom of the well.

This Taweret sealing block was forced to move, a few meters only to reveal the breach, and that it was the recess granite block that (somehow) triggered the movement.

On the relief, this particular part is represented in the crocodile putting its weight upon Taweret.

We've already seen this weight metaphor about Apep and the pressurization of the water of the well : the sycamore tree, the men or just legs are putting weight on Apep, and they are doing this vertically. The only goal was to put pressure.

Here, with the crocodile, the pressure is made to trigger the movement of the Taweret block, and the crocodile isn't put on top of her head but one her back, like you would do to push someone forward : you push hard on his back.


9.20  The crocodile is also a metaphoric representation of the impactor

It is interesting to see that the impactor was represented in many different ways, depending on the context, and the angle of vision necessary to the narrative.

• The sycamore tree, the men and the legs are representations of the weight of the impactor and the induced pressure.

• The calves (bulls and cows) and the rams (horns) are about the shock, the impact, the collision with the waters of the well.

• The crocodiles are about the way that the impactor was getting into the water and stayed underwater for a short period of time, before getting back onto the shore.


Sobek illustration thanks to Jeff Dahl:

Crocodile image thanks to ninfaj and posted on flickr

Ram fighting, National Games, Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan:

Image of Basque ram fighting:


Great Pyramid of Giza Pharaoh Khufu Caliph Al-Mamun Forced Entry Tunnel Passage Ancient Egypt

The "road marking-like" layout of the blocks inside the "forced entry passage" of the caliph Al-Ma'mun.

Photographs of the "forced entry tunnel" of Al-Ma'mun, thanks to Mike Dash in his blog "A Blast from the Past": 

Road markings at Achnacloich Rail Bridge, thanks to Bear Scotland (Perth):


9.21  The "forced entry tunnel" supposedly digged by the caliph Al-Ma'mun

Please note the very particular layout of stone blocks that appear on the above photograph of the "forced entry tunnel of the caliph Al-Ma'mun": massive light color blocks are literally encased between small thin dark color blocks.

In my opinion, it would be the perfect layout to help workers to dig a tunnel from the exterior of the pyramid, that would lead them directly to the granite blocks and the inclined well drain hole. It looks like a perfect traffic sign to me !


Operating diagram of the Great Pyramid of Egypt with 14 Girdle Stones for Evaporative Cold Production and chemical manufactirung of Natron Solvay process June 23 2023

Diagram of the operating Great Pyramid of Egypt for evaporative cold production (hypothetically for chemical manufacturing cooling of pure sodium carbonate "natron", the salt used for the mummification of pharaohs). When in operation, the elevation of the Great Pyramid was not finished, and it is only after the shutdown procedure and the draining of the inclined well, that the 3 granite plugs were finally close to one another.



© 2023 Copyright All rights reserved.

The Pyramids of the Cold v2 by French Egyptologist Layman Bruno Coursol Draining of the Well Great Pyramid of Giza


The Pyramids of the Cold version 2 (May 2023 - February 2024) • Summary of the study and Table of Contents

Part A: The evaporative cooling process

Section 1 • The horizontal evaporative cooling passage layout

Section 2 • The Dendera Light and the creation of the fog of microdroplets by the fog nozzle

Section 3 • The water cycle glorifying metaphors: Geb, Shu, Nut, Tefnut

Section 4 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process by Akhenaten and Nefertiti

Section 5 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process in the Weighing of the Heart


Part B • The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 6 • The inclined well layout and the girdle stones

Section 7 • The Taweret "Lady of the Well" temporary sealing granite plug of the well

Section 8 • The Bes temporary wedging block immobilizing Taweret

Section 9 • The draining of the well

Section 10 • The Great Serpent Apep and the snake water metaphors

Section 11 • The Was scepter and the control over "snakes"

Section 12 • The beating Heart of the Great Pyramid


Part C • The composite impactor of the Great Pyramid (Horus, Ra, Osiris, Medjed, Sobek...)

Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris

Section 14 • The endlessly immersed Osiris stone and the seed metaphor

Section 15 • The Anubis sledge and the bobsled mask

Section 16 • The sledge runners of the impactor: Thoth

Section 17 • Medjed: the smiter nobody can ever see

Section 18 • The Apis bull and the ramming impactor's metaphors

Section 19 • The crocodile god Sobek impactor (more or less) floating in the waters of the well

Section 20 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone rising from water


Part D • The Grand Gallery's of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 21 • The Sacred "sloping paths" of the "oval-shaped cavern of the act of Hauling"

Section 22 • The central wooden caisson of the Gallery: Sekhmet and the Triad of Memphis

Section 23 • The hauling ropes of the Grand Gallery: Isis, Nephthys, Hatmehit, Wadjet and Nekhbet

Section 24 • The hauling Beetle and the Seven Scorpions of Isis

Section 25 • The Great Cow goddess Hathor and the operating cycle of the hauling Beetle

Section 26 • The 10 operating phases of the Grand Gallery

Section 27 • The guide to the Afterlife for the smart traveler and the canopic jars

Section 28 • The scarab amulet glorifications of the hauling Beetle


Part E • The very large and roughly finished sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 29 • The biosand filter sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 30 • The Elephantine Triad deification of the biosand filter of the Great Pyramid

Section 31 • The Great Pyramid's operating flat roof and the water supply issue


Part F • Chemical manufacturing and industrial cooling before the Great Pyramid

Section 32 • The Serdab and the "Refreshment of the Gods" Step Pyramid of Djoser

Section 33 • Sneferu's Red Pyramid and the accumulated ammonia

Section 34 • The Disc of Sabu and the Solvay process for pure natron manufacturing


Part G • The tremendous impact of the Great Pyramid on the whole ancient world

Section 35 • The hidden secrets of the Hermetica Emerald Tablet (around 1600 C.E.)

Section 36 • Thor and the magical Hammer in the Great Hall of Bilskirnir

Section 37 • The Churning of the waters of the Ocean of Milk (Hindu mythology)

Section 38 • The Tibetan prayer wheels and the Grand Gallery's operation

Section 39 and Conclusion • The cooling water of spitting Kebechet


Part H • Epilogue

Section 40 • The smiting Ark of the Covenant and the Ten Commandments

Section 41 • The 293 kilograms windlass Staff of Moses and Aaron... and the First Plague of Egypt: water turning into blood

Section 42 • Ezekiel's Four Egyptian pulley "Wheels within the Wheels" and the four angel ropes

Section 43 • David, Saul, two giant Goliaths, five little stones, an aeolian harp... and a weaver's beam

Section 44 • The holy water fonts and the biosand filter


Part I • The masterminds behind the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 45 • The Legend of Khufu and the "magician" polymath Imhotep


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