Publié par Bruno Coursol dans The Pyramids of the Cold v2 le 13/05/2023 à 19:07
Original image of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Egypt at Giza, built by pharaoh Khufu, from page 52 of "The call of the stars; a popular introduction to a knowledge of the starry skies with their romance and legend" (1919) by Kippax, John R. (John Robert), 1849-1922: https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/14597229618/
The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023) • Part D: the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid
Section 21 • The Sacred "sloping paths" of the "oval-shaped cavern of the act of Hauling" of the Underworld
In summary: the Underworld Amduat "Book of the Hidden Chamber" is describing the endless Hauling process of the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza inside the Grand Gallery.
• The Underworld is a metaphoric representation of the chambers and passages of the Great Pyramid of Giza: the Grand Gallery, the inclined well (the ascending passage), the horizontal cooling passage and the Queen's chamber.
• The zigzag Hauling of the Solar Barque in the Land of Sokar, constantly blocked in its progression is a metaphor of the progression of the towing of the impactor in stages, latch bolt after latch bolt, 25 times per cycle.
• Sokar is a metaphor of the latch bolts themselves
• Aker, the "god of the Horizon", represented most of the time as a pair of lions, is referring to the axle beam and its two eastern and western holders.
In the fourth hour of the Amduat (the Amduat is the Book of the Hidden Chamber), it is mentioned some "sloping passageways" of an "oval-shaped cavern" which are described as "the mysterious paths of the place of Hauling".
In that same fourth hour Re [Ra] enters a dark and dry new region called Rosetau, meaning 'act of towing'.
We'll see that this so-called Sacred "place of Hauling" in the "oval-shaped cavern" was the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid.
We'll see that the Land of Sokar is referring to the operation of the latch bolts that enabled the progression of the wooden gantry structure, inside which 6 crewmembers were towing the impactor. Sokar being the glorifying representation of the latch bolts.
We'll see that the Rosetau region was referring to the eastern and western benches of the gallery where the crewmembers were operating the beetle and hauling the impactor.
We'll see that the ancient Egyptian "God of the Horizon", Aker is referring to the axle beam and the 3 hauling ropes.
We'll also see that the so called "Hidden Chamber" was the Queen's chamber, the only chamber of the Great Pyramid located on its central axis; the chamber where all the efforts of the Great Pyramid's operation were concentrated: the storage of the evaporative cold, and most probably the start of its use for the natron manufacturing cooling process.
Most excerpts about the Amduat are coming from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amduat , RCT: https://www.rct.uk/collection/1145263/section-of-the-papyrus-belonging-to-nesmin-with-the-fourth-hour-of-the-amduat and Sofiatopia for the huge amount of raw data (and obvioulsly not their interpretations of the Amduat): http://www.sofiatopia.org/maat/hidden_chamber03.htm
The Amduat, literally "That Which Is In the Afterworld", also translated as "Book of the Hidden Chamber Which is in the Underworld" and "Book of What is in the Underworld"; is an important ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Section of the papyrus belonging to Nesmin, with the fourth hour of the Amduat. Papyrus from The Royal Collection Trust, c.300-275 BC. RCIN 1145263. https://www.rct.uk/collection/1145263/section-of-the-papyrus-belonging-to-nesmin-with-the-fourth-hour-of-the-amduat
21.01 The Amduat (the "Book of the Hidden Chamber") is the story of god Ra through the Duat-Underworld
"The Amduat, literally "That Which Is In the Afterworld", also translated as "Text of the Hidden Chamber Which is in the Underworld" and "Book of What is in the Underworld"; is an important ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Like many funerary texts, it was found written on the inside of the pharaoh's tomb for reference. Unlike other funerary texts, however, it was reserved only for pharaohs (until the Twenty-first Dynasty almost exclusively) or very favored nobility."
"It tells the story of Ra, the Egyptian sun god who travels through the underworld, from the time when the sun sets in the west* and rises again in the east*. It is said that the dead Pharaoh is taking this same journey, ultimately to become one with Ra and live forever."
"The underworld is divided into twelve hours of the night, each representing different allies and enemies for the Pharaoh/sun god to encounter. The Amduat names all of these gods and monsters. The main purpose of the Amduat is to give the names of these gods and monsters to the spirit of the dead Pharaoh, so he can call upon them for help or use their name to defeat them."
*Sunset is symbolising death, and sunrise is symbolising rebirth.
"The Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, looking south, the sheer-cut-off of the floor; and the two ramps ascending into the darkness beyond". Great Pyramid Passages Volume 1, 1910 edition by John and Morton Edgar: https://archive.org/details/GreatPyramidPassagesVol11910Edition/page/n301/mode/1up
21.02 The Underworld is referring to the chambers and passages of the Great Pyramid
The real hidden meaning of the Underworld is about most of the inside layout of the Great Pyramid of Giza: the Grand Gallery, the inclined well (the ascending passage), the horizontal cooling passage and the Queen's chamber.
At the time when the Great Pyramid was operating, meaning that cold was produced in its Lower part and used on its Upper part, where the Solvay reaction chambers were (most probably) set and needed to be cooled down, the main activity was on this particular Upper part: on the "flat roof" of the pyramid.
That was on that level that the master engineers, contractors and site managers (most probably) had their headquarters. So everything underneath this level is what have been called "the Underworld", and that includes the Grand Gallery, the inclined well (the ascending passage), the horizontal passage and the Queen's chamber.
We'll see on the Amduat Hour 5, that the Queen's chamber was the Hidden Chamber.
21.03 The Grand Gallery and the Inclined Well in the Amduat
In Hour 4 of the Book of the Hidden Chamber (the Amduat), the "sloping passageways" of an "oval-shaped cavern" are described as "the mysterious paths of the place of Hauling".
"In the fourth hour of the Amduat, Re enters a dark and dry new region called Rosetau, meaning 'act of towing'. His solar bark is indeed depicted as being towed by four gods over a dry, sandy land populated by snakes. The solar bark itself has been transformed into a double-headed serpent as only snakes can successfully get across this desert and dangerous region."
In these particular excerpts, everything is about the Grand Gallery and/or the inclined well :
• The "sloping passageways" are referring to the Grand Gallery and to the inclined well
• The "oval-shaped cavern" is referring to the Grand Gallery alone, and is about its shape
• The "dark and dry new region called Rosetau" is referring to the Grand Gallery alone and is about its environment
• The "mysterious paths of the place of Hauling" is referring to the Grand Gallery alone, and is about its function
The "sloping tunnel of the underworld" in the ancient Egyptian Amduat Book of the Hidden Chamber, is a metaphorical representation of the inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Ancient Egyptian sun god Ra in his "solar barque": https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ra_Barque.jpg
21.04 The representation of the inclined well in the Amduat: "the sloping tunnel of the underworld"
The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza was represented in the Amduat "Book of the Hidden Chamber of the Underworld", as the "sloping tunnel of the Underworld" : "during the night the sun journeyed through a tunnel that existed in the earth - its entry into the tunnel caused the night, its emergence again bringing the day once more." http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/aker.htm
Detail of the Amduat Papyrus Inscribed for Tiye from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York ; Accession Number 25.3.33 (ca. 975–945 B.C): https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/549650
21.05 The Hauling in action and producing the cold
The above scene of the Amduat is another illustration that Sokar is the representation of the latch bolts. What we have here is the schematic and metaphoric representation of the hauling process.
Probably the snake is here a representation of both the hauling ropes and the water descending the central gutter for the impactor to move, but also maybe for the water that was used inside the hollow section rails in which the hauling Beetle sledges were also probably moving.
What is both fascinating and excruciating in the deciphering of all these metaphors that ancient Egyptians have created, is that they are most of the time intertwined with each other; for example here, the snake (whether it is about the hauling ropes or the water running through the central wooden caisson of the Gallery) walking on a pair of legs is indicating that the rope(s) or the water is in movement; that the hauling process really is underway.
Please note that these 2 wings aren't just wings: some rectangular structures are clearly marked, of course I am seeing into them the niches of the eastern and western walls. These niches were the cavities where the latch bolts were installed for the sequential hauling process.
Also we can see that the big snake on legs is prolonging itself into a smaller snake, with no legs, but which is offering the ankh sign instead. In other words, the scene can be translated as follows : the Hauling process is the one producing the evaporative cold (the Ankh sign is the evaporative cold).
The tomb of Irynefer TT 290 at Deir el-Medina, is another confirmation that the squatting falcon Sokar is a metaphoric representation of the latch bolts of the Grand Gallery: the Great Cow Mehet-Weret looks like she is gonna run over the falcon, exactly like the hauling Beetle would do on the latch bolts. Image from kairoinfo4u: https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/11433106165
21.06 The Great hauling cows
Cows such as Hathor, Neith, Serket and Mehet-Weret are metaphoric glorifications of the hauling Beetles used by ancient Egyptians in their "pharaonic" quest for science and technological accomplishments. In some parts of the world, cows and not horses were and still are indeed animals used for their hauling capabilities.
Here, the Great Cow goddess Mehet-Weret is clearly represented stopped in her movement by the falcon representation of god Sokar.
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures from the National Museums Liverpool, World Museum (left), 332 BCE - 30 BCE, Accession number 56.21.601: https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/artifact/ptah-sokar-osiris-figure-17 ; from the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New-York (center), Accession number 86.1.88a–d: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551504 ; and from the Louvre in Paris (top right image), Numéro principal N 3512: https://collections.louvre.fr/en/ark:/53355/cl010018325
21.07 The Land of Sokar is the glorification of the sequential progression of the hauling Beetle on its way down the Grand Gallery
The zigzag hauling of the Solar Barque in the Land of Sokar, constantly blocked in its progression is a metaphor of the progression of the towing of the impactor in stages, latch bolt after latch bolt, 25 times per cycle.
Still about the Amduat Hour 4: "The zigzag path, repeatedly closed by doors, gives access to the 'Land of Sokar, who is upon his sand', which Re visits during the fourth and fifth hours."
Once again, ancient Egyptians used the knife as a metaphor : the hauling process of the impactor, enabled or limited by the latch bolts apparatus, was performed in stages, latch bolt after latch bolt.
To reinforce that idea, many representations of Sokar are showing a very distinctive triangular shape, the exact same shape as a regular modern latch bolt.
21.08 The triangular shape of the falcon representation of Sokar is the same as the latchbolts's
The "zigzag hauling" of the Solar Barque, constantly blocked in its sequential progression is a metaphor of the sequential progression of the towing of the impactor in stages, latch bolt after latch bolt, 25 times per cycle. Some of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures are clearly showing a squatting falcon on the wooden base of the figures; these falcons are the representation of Sokar and they have most of the time a very neat distinctive triangular shape. This triangular shape of the falcons is the reason why they are represented on the figures on the first place: the triangular representations of the Sokar falcon are about the latch bolts themselves.
Detail of the Book of the Dead of the Priest of Horus (section 2), Imhotep (Imuthes), ca. 332–200 B.C.E. from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accession Number 35.9.20a–w: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551786
21.09 The pair of Sokar representations, facing each other to refer to the pair of latch bolts per stage
This part of the Book is particularly interesting because the falcon representation of Sokar is represented 2 times. The first one is on the left, and Sokar appears in a triangular shape exactly like in the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures (except the 2 additional spread wings), but the second one is what's really worth looking at : here, Sokar is represented twice and both are facing each over; there is no more wings, but their legs are somehow suggesting that same 45° angle that many squatted falcons of Sokar representations are showing.
That facing representation of that "double Sokar" reinforce one more time the idea that Sokar is a metaphor of the pairs of latch bolts that were facing each other themselves.
21.10 The latch bolts popping out of the walls with the speed of a falcon after the Beetle has passed
Of course, the shape of the falcon representations of Sokar is crucial, because it really is the exact same shape as the shape of a latch bolt, but from what we've already discovered about the ancient Egyptian way of creating and using metaphors, I would say there is something else about the falcon.
By using the falcon to represent the glorification of the latch bolts, they also (probably, but very likely) wanted to represent the way the latch bolts were popping out of the walls after the hauling Beetle would have passed onto them and forced them inside their cavities in the walls.
My eye is popping out! By Emma: https://bostoneyeblink.com/2022/03/10/scary-my-eye-is-popping-out/
21.11 Is the Fire-Water the pressurized water or the cold itself ?
"This Lake of Fire is a place of fiery punishment for the damned, but the blessed dead drink cool water from it. This "fire-water" is a powerful alchemical symbol, related to Philosophical Mercury (Aqua Mercurii). Dependent on one's attitude and condition, this water changes function. Constructive (blue) to some, it is destructive (red) to others."
As of today, I'm not sure of the true meaning of the fire-water. No doubt it is another metaphor, but is it about the pressurized water or about the cold water itself?
21.12 Is the "who is upon his sand" reference another metaphor of the stop-and-go progression ?
It is still unclear to me what is the meaning of this "sand" reference. The only sand I could think of in this part of the Great Pyramid is the sand filter that was set in what is used today as an electrical room, located between the top platform and the antechamber, on the western side.
In my opinion, this sand filter was most probably a bio-sand filter, able to produce large amount of drinkable water from the dirty water tank that was the King chamber. But I don't see why Aker (the two axle beam holders set in the eastern and western holes), would have been described as "who is upon his sand".
But most probably, this sand reference could be another metaphor of the zigzag progression : when you are walking on sand, the progression is difficult and slow and most of the time it is impossible to walk straight. So that sand could be just another metaphor here, the same way the gates, or the doors are : the operating of the Hauling Beetle was hard, slow and in an endless stop and go progression.
21.13 The start of the cold production
In the Amduat, the "Book of the Hidden Chamber", it is said that the process of regeneration, meaning the cold production, starts at the end of the fourth hour, and that corresponds with the deepest and darkest point of RA's voyage.
That deepest and darkest point is about the grand gallery ; as soon as the impactor enters the inclined well, its water is pressurized and the cold can be made: "Arriving at the deepest, darkest point (the end of the 4th Hour), attention is brought on the process of regeneration itself (the 5th & 6th Hour)."
Tomb KV 9 of Ramesses V-VI, corridor H Amduat Hour 4, photographed by kairoinfo4u and posted on flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/38745537034/in/photostream/
21.14 The inverted position of the latch bolts in the hauling beetle scarab of the Amduat
On the reliefs of the Amduat Hour 4 on the above image, both the impactor and the beetle hauling scarab are represented. We've already seen in the post on Apep that the solar barque was a metaphor of the impactor, and here also appears the metaphoric representation of the hauling scarab, and that is the rectangular structures going down the slope.
If we look at the enlarged image of the structure, it is like hanging in mid air by some kind of magic trick. But actually the trick is also depicted : that is the triangular black shape that is holding the entire structure.
The triangular black shape is the latch bolt.
So why did they represented the latch bolts on the bottom side of the scarab structure, while I'm positioning them on the upper side? Well, they are 2 possibilities :
1 • I am wrong about the way that the towing scarab was operating the axle beam, and it is a very legitimate possibility as I am everything but an engineer myself…
2 • I am right about this part, and the explanation could be as follows : on these reliefs, the ropes and the axle beam aren't depicted, there are just the structures on "the slopping paths of the towing region", and that makes another story where nobody would have ever understand that some "triangular stopping elements" would have been put on the upper part of the structure.
I've only put the latch bolts on the upper side of the structure because the axle beam would have redirected the towing forces 180°. The axle beam is inverting the towing forces. So on the reliefs, if the story is "some structure was going down the slope, one step at a time in a constant cutting progression by some kind of "knives" in a "zigzag" movement, well what do you do about the latch bolts : you put them on the lower side of the towing structure, so that the progression still appears logical and secure.
God Aker (Akeru, plural): drawing by Jeff Dahl. "Aker, an ancient Egyptian personification of the horizon. Two lions symbolize 'yesterday' and 'tomorrow' with the sun-disk rising between the symbolic horizon between them. The hieroglyph for 'sky' spans across the top. Based on New Kingdom tomb paintings and the book of the dead." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aker_(deity)#/media/File:Aker.svg
21.15 God of the "Horizon" Aker : the academic point of view
The Amduat Hour 5 introduces Aker, the "god of the Horizon". Represented most of the time as a pair of lions, Aker is actually referring to the axle beam and its two eastern and western holders.
"In Egyptian mythology, Aker (also spelt Akar) was one of the earliest gods worshipped, and was the deification of the horizon. There are strong indications that Aker was worshipped before other known Egyptian gods of the earth, such as Geb. In particular, the Pyramid texts make a sinister statement that the Akeru (plural of "Aker") will not seize the pharaoh, as if this were something that might have happened, and was something of which to be afraid. "Aker" itself translates as "(one who) bends", and thus "Akeru" translates as "benders", though in what sense this is meant, is not fully understood. […] these heads were usually those of lions. Over time, the heads became full figures of lions (still facing away from each other), one representing the concept of "yesterday" ("Sef" in Egyptian), and the other the concept of "tomorrow" ("Duau" in Egyptian)."
"As the horizon, Aker was also seen as symbolic of the borders between each day, and so was originally depicted as a narrow strip of land (i.e. a horizon), with heads on either side, facing away from one another, a symbol of borders."
Above the lions, are supposed to be the horizon (white), ended by mountains (colored pikes), the red sun and the blue sky (blue straight).
Menat necklace from Malqata at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York (left and center) 1390–1353 B.C. New Kingdom, Dynasty 18. Reign of Amenhotep III: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544509. Right: the same necklace, photographed by Eric (Wsrmatre Stpnre) and posted on Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wsrmatre/40919418864
21.16 God of the "Horizon" Aker is referring to the axle beam and its pair of holders
Aker is often depicted as a pair of lions, looking east and west and clearly holding something on their backs. To understand the real meaning of this, we need to look at the Menat Necklace from Malqata at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: what is important in the pair of lion (or cat) representations isn't their backs, but the hole between their paws and their bellies. The Menat necklace clearly indicates that a "beam" was supposed to be inserted through the cat bellies.
If we look closely the above center photograph, two thin parallel straight lines are even materializing the exact position where the axle beam was intended to be.
These same cats are also looking east and west and their general shape seems to have been designed to perfectly fit in the eastern and western holes of the top platform of the Grand Gallery.
To understand the link between the pair of opposite cats (or lions), we need to look at some figures of the Four Sons of Horus.
Image on the left and center: Funerary Figure of Duamutef. 400–30 B.C. Late Period–Ptolemaic Period. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York. On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 133: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551149
21.17 The Grand Gallery layout replica on the Four Sons of Horus figures at the MET
The first photograph is one of the Four Sons of Horus figures, visible at the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New-York, and is showing a jackal-headed figure representing Duamutef, the god who protected the stomach of the mummies.
The half lower part of this image had been magnified and partially enlightened on the second picture of the figurine so that we can see clearly the different structures depicted.
My assumption is that what we have here is a complete representation of the grand gallery layout of the Great Pyramid of Khufu :
1/ The eastern and western ramps (painted white), with 2 hollow section rails by ramp
2/ The central gutter (yellow painted)
3/ The top platform (yellow painted), with the axle beam for operating the 3 ropes
4/ The south wall of the grand gallery (with the openings)
5/ The opening of the antechamber (black line)
6/ The opening of the passage to the King's chamber (black square)
In my opinion, the crucial element here is the one that is represented in a greenish color and that seems to be put onto the top platform. That element is the axle beam.
Funerary Figures of the Four Sons of Horus, with Imsety (human head) second from the left. 400–30 B.C. Late Period–Ptolemaic Period. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York. Imsety is the only one with a human head, the three other Sons of Horus figures have heads representing a jackal (god Duamutef), a baboon (god Hapy) and a falcon (god Qebehsenuef): https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/564551
21.18 The axle beam for operating the 3 ropes of the gallery was inserted into the 2 holes of the platform
The second magnified image is from the figurine of Imsety, the god that protected the liver, and who was one of the Four Sons of Horus. This image clearly shows the eastern and western holes of the platform and it also depicts that the greenish element was "inserted" inside these holes.
This Imsety figurine is telling us that the main axle beam on which the 3 ropes of the grand gallery were attached to, was anchored into the platform. Also, it is crucial to really keep in mind that this platform is way bigger that what we can see in the first place: it is one of the biggest stone of the entire structure of the pyramid.
The southern part of the single block that formed the top platform of the grand gallery, was under tremendous charge by the structure weight, that perfectly anchored the block. It was necessary to resist to the huge structural stress induced by the endless operating of both the beetle wooden scarab, and the moving caisson. God Aker (Akeru, plural), drawing by Jeff Dahl: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aker#/media/Fichier:Aker.svg
21.19 The single block platform of the grand gallery
The top platform of the Grand Gallery has a very specific design, because it is actually made of one single giant block, that goes way after the south wall of the gallery towards the antechamber : the block is way bigger than what we can see of it, exactly like it is for the girdle stones of the inclined well.
Charles Rigano mentioned : "The single block forming the Step does not stop at the Gallery wall but extends an additional 66 inches* into the Ante Chamber".
* For Petrie, it was 64.90 inches. Source: "The pyramids and temples of Gizeh. Antechamber and passages", section 47 (page 75). Petrie, W. M. Flinders (William Matthew Flinders), Sir, 1853-1942: https://archive.org/details/cu31924012038927/page/n113/mode/2up
Funerary Figure of Imsety, one of the Four Sons of Horus (with human head) from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York, 400–30 B.C. Late Period–Ptolemaic Period (Accession Number: 12.182.37b). Granite fragment with Khufu's Horus name Medjedu on it from the British Museum, photographed by CaptMondo and posted on Wikipedia (English).
21.20 The axle beam of the Great Pyramid of Giza (with its pair of holders), on a granite fragment with Horus' name of Khufu on it
A better representation than the one found on the Imsety figure, can be found on the granite fragment with Khufu's Horus name at the British Museum: the axle beam and its holders are perfectly drawn on what looks like the exact same top platform of the Grand Gallery.
The entire Lower Pyramid cooling process started in the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid with the operating of the axle beam and the 3 ropes that were attached to the wooden beetle scarabs (one on each ramp), and the impactor (in the wooden central caisson in the gutter).
The maneuvering of the axle beam allowed the impactor to get inside the inclined well (the underworld).
From Academic.com: "Aker was said to guard the entrance and exit to the underworld, opening them for the sun to pass through during the night. As the guard, it was said that the dead had to request Aker to open the underworld's gates, so that they might enter." Source: https://en-academic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/59798
Here again, everything is nothing else than metaphors : there is no door to open to get to the Duat-Underworld, but you had to operate the ropes and the axle beam has to be in action, rotating in both ways.
21.21 "Yesterday/Tomorrow" : the forwards and backwards references to the axle beam direction of rotation
"From Middle Kingdom onwards Aker appears as a pair of twin lions, one named Duaj (meaning "yesterday") and the other Sefer (meaning "tomorrow"). Aker was thus often titled "He who's looking forward and behind": https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aker_(deity)
"In the later period of Egyptian theology the two lions making up the Akeru were named Sef and Tuau - 'yesterday' and 'today' respectively." http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/aker.htm
That reference to yesterday and tomorrow (or today) is in y opinion echoing the fact that the axle beam was operated in both directions of rotation : both the towing scarab and the impactor were moving forwards and backwards, again and again, day after day.
My interpretation of the operating of the 3 ropes as represented on the above drawing, isn't probably the only solution to get the job done, but it is simple and could be sufficiently efficient to be correct. It doesn't require any pulley, and according to scholars, ancient Egyptians didn't use this kind of equipment at the time of the construction of the pyramids.
The forwards and backwards reference is about the perpetual direction of rotation changes of the axle beam.
21.22 The axle beam that bends and imprisons the coils of the snake
It is known that the name Aker means "(one) who bends", and it is conceivable to imagine that the axle beam would indeed bend a lot. Maybe one day we'll even find out in what wood that beam was made of, like we know that the impactor was made out of Sycamore tree wood.
That reference to the bending of Aker is easy to apprehend, and maybe the reference to the coils of the snake imprisoning is that easy : it could simply refer to the winding of the ropes on the axle beam.
"More importantly, he imprisons the coils of the snake, Apophis (Apep), after it is hacked to pieces by Isis, and Aker could, along his back, provide a secure passage for the sun-god's boat as it traveled from west to east during the hours of the night." http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/aker.htm
"The name Aker means '(one) who bends'". https://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/aker/
The hauling process of the impactor of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
21.23 The "grasp of the Akeru" and the hazardous work reference about the winding of the ropes
Until now, we haven't discussed at all about the danger that were facing the crewmembers of the wooden beetle scarab. When they were inside the gantry, they most probably didn't risk anything : their work would have been excruciating but not that dangerous.
I suggested the idea that when the impactor was at the top of the gallery, ready to be released in the slope, the crewmembers first had to get the wooden gantry lifted back up as well, so that the entire crew would most probably be on the top platform just before releasing the impactor.
I also suggested that one crewmember on each ramp was on the top platform, hauling the ropes of the gantry while the other crewmembers were pushing the Beetle back up.
During these two phases of operating, crewmen would have been close to the axle beam while the ropes would have been winded on, and they would certainly have fear the danger of their hands being grasped by the ropes winding on the axle:
"Later the Egyptian priests created magical spells to protect ordinary mortals from the grasp of the Akeru, the primeval, lion earth gods." https://www.landofpyramids.org/aker.htm
"There was also a more threatening side to Aker that can be seen when he is pluralized as Akeru in the form of multiple earth gods. In passages from the Pyramid Texts, the Akeru are said not to seize the monarch, but later there is a general hope for everyone to escape the grasp of the earth gods." http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/aker.htm
Apep (also Apophis) was the ancient Egyptian Great Serpent god of Chaos ("isfet") that reigned over the Underworld and fought sun and creator god Ra in his solar barque, in endless fights, night after night. Image from Soutekh67 and posted on Wikimedia Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barque_solaire_contre_Apopi.jpg
21.24 The protection from the Great Serpent Apep and the snake bite immunity
"He guarded the eastern and western borders of the netherworld and protected the sun god Ra when he first entered the netherworld at sunset and again when he returned to the world of the living at sunrise and bore the sun on his back through the underworld. He also welcomed the dead Pharaoh into the underworld."
"He defended the sun god from the serpent Apep (Apophis) and was considered to be able to neutralize a snake bite. In his role as a protective deity, twin lion statues representing Aker were placed at the doors of palaces and tombs to protect against evil spirits, a practice adopted by both the Greeks and Romans."
This part is absolutely essential because it links the Akeru (the axle beam and its holders) to the inclined well (pressurized) waters (the Great Serpent Apep).
Aker was the metaphor of the equipment that used the energy of the working crew of the beetle scarab to lift, again and again the impactor on top of the gallery, before its release in the slope.
When the impactor hits the waters of the well, it could be described as an attack on that waters, an attack on Apep.
Also, when the impactor is recovered from the well for another cycle to begin again and again, it could be depicted as some kind of immunity from Apep; hence the reference to the snake bite: "He defended the sun god from the serpent Apep (Apophis) and was considered to be able to neutralize a snake bite."
No matter how many times Aker attacked Apep, he would always be able to safely escape from Apep's grip, unharmed.
Detail of The Amduat Book of the Hidden Chamber, Hour 5. Drawing by A.G. Shedid (digitally enhanced) - Hornung (1999). Burial chamber of the tomb of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III - ca. 1426 BCE.
21.25 The oval-shaped cavern of the act of towing
Detail of the Amduat "Book of the Hidden Chamber" Hour 5, showing the oval cavern of the Land of Sokar (the Grand Gallery), with god Sokar spreading or opening wings from the ground, inside the cavern, that is "closed" by two lions, facing east and west. These two lions represent the god Aker (Akeru in its plural form).
This scene is a metaphorical representation of the grand gallery of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The two doors (the lions), that were "closing" the Land of Sokar, were a metaphor of the representation of the axle beam and its two eastern and western holders that were set onto the Grand Gallery's top platform : what was allowing the solar barque to get in the tunnel of the Underworld, were precisely what represent god Aker: the axle beam and its two eastern and western holders.
The two lions were controlling the impactor progression to the top of the gallery before being released, hence metaphorically, these two lions were seen as the gates of the Underworld tunnel.
Book of the Hidden Chamber, Amduat Hour 6. Burial chamber of the tomb of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III - ca. 1426 BCE. Drawing by A.G. Shedid (digitally enhanced) - Hornung (1999).
21.26 The Hidden Chamber of the Amduat is the Queen's chamber
The Amduat Hour 6 introduces the idea that the regenerative powers originate from both the primordial waters of Nun and the Mehen serpent.
This 6th hour is very important, because it also perfectly separates the Grand Gallery representation (the Land of Sokar) from the inclined well (the "Water hole filled with Nun", the primordial ocean).
It is also clearly saying that Nun (the water of the well) is at the origin of the magical "regenerative" powers (the creation of the cold):
"In the 6th Hour, the Land of Sokar is left and the water hole filled with Nun is reached."
"Nun, the primordial ocean, is the guardian of this hour."
"The 6th Hour is the "waterhole" of those in the Duat, filled with Nun, the primordial ocean and its regenerative powers, i.e. the presence of a creative potential (or Ba) within this darkness, namely : Atum."
In the previous excerpt the regenerative powers are linked to the primordial waters of Nun, and in the following excerpt, that same regenerative powers are this time linked to the Mehen serpent : "In the sixth hour the most significant event in the underworld occurs. The ba (or soul) of Ra unites with his own body within the circle formed by the Mehen serpent. This event is the point at which the sun begins its regeneration".
But the previous excerpts are also linking the regenerative powers (the cold) to Atum, and we've already seen that Atum was the representation of the small amount of pressurized water ejected from the inclined well towards the fog nozzle. Atum created the fog of microdroplets (represented by Tefnut, the god of humidity and moisture), and was simultaneously accompanied with fresh dry and warm air (represented by Shu, the god of dry and warm air and fog).
Diagram of the operating Great Pyramid of Egypt for evaporative cold production (hypothetically for chemical manufacturing cooling of pure sodium carbonate "natron", the salt used for the mummification of pharaohs). When in operation, the elevation of the Great Pyramid was not finished, and it is only after the shutdown procedure and the draining of the inclined well, that the 3 granite plugs were finally close to one another.
The Pyramids of the Cold version 2 (May-October 2023) • Summary of the study and Table of Contents
Part A: The evaporative cooling process
Section 1 • The horizontal evaporative cooling passage layout
Section 2 • The Dendera Light and the creation of the fog of microdroplets by the fog nozzle
Section 3 • The water cycle glorifying metaphors: Geb, Shu, Nut, Tefnut
Section 4 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process by Akhenaten and Nefertiti
Section 5 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process in the Weighing of the Heart
Part B • The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza
Section 6 • The inclined well layout and the girdle stones
Section 7 • The Taweret "Lady of the Well" temporary sealing granite plug of the well
Section 8 • The Bes temporary wedging block immobilizing Taweret
Section 9 • The draining of the well
Section 10 • The Great Serpent Apep and the snake water metaphors
Section 11 • The Was scepter and the control over "snakes"
Section 12 • The beating Heart of the Great Pyramid
Part C • The composite impactor of the Great Pyramid (Horus, Ra, Osiris, Medjed, Sobek...)
Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris
Section 14 • The endlessly immersed Osiris stone and the seed metaphor
Section 15 • The Anubis sledge and the bobsled mask
Section 16 • The sledge runners of the impactor: Thoth
Section 17 • Medjed: the smiter nobody can ever see
Section 18 • The Apis bull and the ramming impactor's metaphors
Section 19 • The crocodile god Sobek impactor (more or less) floating in the waters of the well
Section 20 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone rising from water
Part D • The Grand Gallery's of the Great Pyramid of Giza
Section 21 • The Sacred "sloping paths" of the "oval-shaped cavern of the act of Hauling"
Section 22 • The central wooden caisson of the Gallery: Sekhmet and the Triad of Memphis
Section 23 • The hauling ropes of the Grand Gallery: Isis, Nephthys, Hatmehit, Wadjet and Nekhbet
Section 24 • The hauling Beetle and the Seven Scorpions of Isis
Section 25 • The Great Cow goddess Hathor and the operating cycle of the hauling Beetle
Section 26 • The 10 operating phases of the Grand Gallery
Section 27 • The guide to the Afterlife for the smart traveler and the canopic jars
Section 28 • The scarab amulet glorifications of the hauling Beetle
Part E • The very large and roughly finished sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid
Section 29 • The biosand filter sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid
Section 30 • The Elephantine Triad deification of the biosand filter of the Great Pyramid
Section 31 • The Great Pyramid's operating flat roof and the water supply issue
Part F • Chemical manufacturing and industrial cooling before the Great Pyramid
Section 32 • The Serdab and the "Refreshment of the Gods" Step Pyramid of Djoser
Section 33 • Sneferu's Red Pyramid and the accumulated ammonia
Section 34 • The Disc of Sabu and the Solvay process for pure natron manufacturing
Part G • The tremendous impact of the Great Pyramid on the whole ancient world
Section 35 • The hidden secrets of the Hermetica Emerald Tablet (around 1600 C.E.)
Section 36 • Thor and the magical Hammer in the Great Hall of Bilskirnir
Section 37 • The Churning of the waters of the Ocean of Milk (Hindu mythology)
Section 38 • The Tibetan prayer wheels and the Grand Gallery's operation
Section 39 and Conclusion • The cooling water of spitting Kebechet
Part H • Epilogue
Section 40 • The smiting Ark of the Covenant and the Ten Commandments
Section 41 • The 293 kilograms windlass Staff of Moses and Aaron... and the First Plague of Egypt: water turning into blood
Section 42 • Ezekiel's Four Egyptian pulley "Wheels within the Wheels" and the four angel ropes
Section 43 • David, Saul, two giant Goliaths, five little stones, an aeolian harp... and a weaver's beam
Section 44 • The holy water fonts and the biosand filter
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