The Pyramids of the Cold Section 2 • The Dendera Light

Dendera Light Bulb Hathor Temple Ancient Egypt Pyramids of the Cold

The Dendera Light is a stone relief in the Hathor temple at Denderah in Egypt, that depict Harsomtus, in the form of a snake, emerging from a lotus flower. "In six reliefs he is shown within an oval container called hn, which might represent the womb of Nut. These superficially resemble a lamp or light." Photograph thanks to Kairoinfo4U and posted on flickr:

Lotus seed head thanks to Dinkum:


The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023) - Part A • The Evaporative Cooling

Section 2 • The Dendera Light

Great Pyramid of Egypt Pharaoh Khufu at Giza Horizontal Evaporative Cooling Passage Grand Gallery Junction Ascending Granite Plug

In summarythe Dendera Light is the representation of the fog made of microdroplets of liquid water that was produced inside the horizontal passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza in order to achieve evaporative cooling. The shape of the Dendera Light is constrained by the shape of the passage. The endless pounding of an impactor pressurized the water in the flooded ascending passage and a fog nozzle transformed that pressurized water into microdroplets of water that instantly evaporated and thus, created evaporative cold.

The lotus flower from which the Dendera Light seems to come from is the representation of the fog nozzle, because of the 'shower head' look of the lotus seed head : the lotus flowers in the Dendera Light reliefs are not about the flowers themselves, but about their seed heads.

The Dendera Light Bulb resting on a Djed pillar is the representation of why the cold was produced : most probably to cool down chemical reactions for the manufacturing of sodium carbonate Na2CO3, the purest mineral form of natron, the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs, using a Solvay-like process that requires reaction towers in order to obtain counterflow reaction efficiency. Djed pillars are Solvay towers.


2.01  Dendera Light : the academic point of view

The scholar explanation of the famous stone reliefs in the Hathor temple at Dendera in Egypt, depict the Dendera Light "as God Harsomtus, in the form of a snake, emerging from a lotus flower in an oval container called hn, which might represent the womb of Nut. Sometimes a djed pillar supports the snake or the container." Source : and


Great Pyramid of Egypt Pharaoh Khufu at Giza Gizeh Queen Chamber Horizontal Passage 2

Vertical section, looking West, of the Great Pyramid of Giza, in the plane of its passages, by Manly Palmer Hall :


Great Pyramid of Giza King Khufu Queen Chamber Horizontal Passage Sand Petrie Ancient Egypt

The evaporative cooling passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Queen's chamber were discovered with a very hard encrustation of salt, up to one-half inch (1.3 centimeter) thick. That salt is the signature of the evaporative cooling process.

Please read the Section about Akhenaten and Nefertiti, for the explanations of the Ankh being the symbol of the evaporative cooling.

The elevation loss of 3.8 inches is between the start of the collecting ramp (858.4 inches) and its end (854.6 inches). Elevation data (inches) : "The pyramids and temples of Gizeh", by Petrie, W. M. Flinders (William Matthew Flinders), Sir, 1853-1942, in Section 40 "Passage to Queen's Chamber" (page 66):


2.02  The ancient Egyptian Dendera Light "protective magical energy in liquid form" is the evaporative cooling fog

The fact that the Dendera Light is made of liquid water that transforms itself in a magical way, is exactly what are describing ancient Egyptians themselves :

[About the snake inside the Dendera Light Bulb] "The field surrounding Ra’s snake form is referred to in ancient Egyptian literature as protective magical energy in liquid form that all gods and pharaohs possess (Faulkner 1970*)."

*I'm not sure, but the excerpt might be from "The ancient Egyptian book of the dead / translated by Raymond O. Faulkner ; edited by Carol Andrews, 1972."


Dendera Light Bulb Electricity Lamp Fringe Theory Debunked Hathor Temple Ancient Egypt v2

The double outline of the characters holding the Dendera Light: they are cold and they have goose bumps.


2.03  The double outline of the characters holding the Dendera Light bulb and having goose bumps

This "double outline" isn't discussed at all by anybody, though it is the most important element of the Dendera reliefs. The fog is made of microdroplets of liquid water and it would evaporate itself, taking the necessary energy from the air. The result is the cooling down of the air. The character is offering cold, and he is cold himself.

The "double outline" of the offering fog character of the Dendera Light reliefs, shows the goose bumps. He was cold himself.

Actually, everything depends on the capacity of the air to absorb humidity. The example shown on the Carrier Diagram below, tells us that it was probably very easy to cool down the air next to 10°C, if the air started at a 10% humidity rate, and got to 90% at the end of the process.

But, I think they could cool down the air a lot more than that. Because at the entry of the pyramid, was certainly installed a liquid dehumidifier, working with a salt brine solution. The air at the beginning of the cooling process was probably close to 5% humidity or lower ; and the air inside the horizontal passage probably closer to 100%.

In my opinion, in regards to the extensive efforts to minimize the thermal stress on the first part of the horizontal passage, and the first part only, particularly the sand added behind the blocks and the large expansion joints, I wouldn't be surprised they got close to 5°C in the Queen's chamber (41°F).


2.04  The "Power of Water" and the "Bristling Hair" reference in the Book of the Dead of Ani

That double outline of the Dendera relief character, being a representation of the goose bumps that results of cold temperatures induced by the association of air and water, is actually present in the Egyptian Book of the Dead of Ani.

The following excerpt comes from the papyrus of Ani, Egyptian Book of the Dead (240 BCE), translated by E.A. Wallis Budge (last third of the page) :


"The Chapter Of Breathing The Air And Of Having Power Over Water in Khert-Neter."

"The Osiris Ani saith: Open to me! Who art thou? Whither goest thou? What is thy name? I am one of you. Who are these with you? The two Merti goddesses (Isis and Nephthys). Thou separatest head from head when [he] entereth the divine Mesqen chamber. He causeth me to set out for the temple of the gods Kem-heru. "Assembler of souls" is the name of my ferry-boat. "Those who make the hair to bristle" is the name of the oars. "Sert" ("Goad") is the name of the hold. "Steering straight in the middle" is the name of the rudder; likewise, [the boat] is a type of my being borne onward in the lake. Let there be given unto me vessels of milk, and cakes, and loaves of bread, and cups of drink, and flesh, in the Temple of Anpu."


Dendera Light Bulb Electric Lamp Hathor Temple Ancient Egypt Pyramids of the Cold

The Dendera Light is "produced" by the sprayed venom of a spitting snake.

Dendera Light relief drawing on the left : please notice that what seems to be important here isn't the snake, but the spat venom of the snake. Also, you can see that the characters holding the snake are showing a double outline, the same way that the character holding (or offering) the Dendera Light does, on the right part of the drawing. The Dendera Light is produced by the snake, or as explained : by the venom of the snake. This particular relief is describing how was produced the microdroplets fog of sprayed water. Dendera Light drawing from the New York Public Library (Digital Collections). Author : Auguste Mariette, 1821-1881


2.05  The double Theoretical and Practical displays on the Dendera reliefs

2.051  The venom spray of a spitting snake / The fog of microdroplets

The ascending passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza was actually flooded and the fall of an impactor (wooden cradle float + granite block), pressurized the ascending passage (the inclined well) and so generated high-pressurized water that was sprayed inside the horizontal passage into a microdroplets fog, that instantly vaporized itself and by doing so, cooled down the air temperature. This is an adiabatic cooling process, that can cool down the air very effectively, with a 15 to 20°C drop.

That fog of liquid water microdroplets, is the Dendera Light.

That drawing of one of the Dendera Light reliefs, is absolutely outstanding, because it is organized the same way we do today in every single science book : the theoretical part on one side and the practical part on the other side.

On the left side of the drawing, we can see that the key element is the spat venom of the snake and not the snake by itself : that represents the sprayed water ; and on the right side we can see the practical application of the concept inside the horizontal passage of the Great Pyramid : from the inclined well (the ascending passage), is the water pipe going to the fog nozzle and resulting in the microdroplets fog.

Please note that 1/ the angle of the Dendera Light Bulb is very similar to the angle of the typical venom spray of a spitting snake ; and 2/ the shape of the Light Bulb is very similar to the shape of the horizontal passage.


Dendera Light Bulb Electric Lamp Ancient Egyptian Temple Conspiracy Fringe Theory Electricity Debunked

This Dendera Light relief is showing both the creation of the fog of microdroplets on the left side (god Shu holding goddess Nut in the air) and the practical use of the cold that was created to cool down the Djed pillar, on the right side (the arms are "taking" the cold).

Photograph thanks to Kairoinfo4U and posted on flickr:


2.052 The creation of the cold / The practical use of the cold

This Dendera Light relief is particularly interesting, because it is showing that the fog of microdroplets, the evaporative cold, was created for one precise piece of equipment : Djed pillars. This is the link between the creation of the cold and the Djed pillars that needed to be cooled down. We'll see in further sections that Djed pillars were most probably Solvay or Solvay-like towers, made of piled up counterflow reaction chambers units designed to manufacture sodium carbonate (also called natron) and sodium bicarbonate.

The evaporative cold was created to cool down chemical manufacturing Solvay-like towers.


Dendera Light Lamp Electric Bulb Electricity in Ancient Egypt

On these Dendera Light Bulbs reliefs, it is worth noting that the entire shape of the micro-droplets cooling fog entirely fits in a space that has the exact height of the passage where the process starts on the drawing it is on. Dendera Light drawing from the New York Public Library (Digital Collections). Author : Auguste Mariette, 1821-1881


2.06  The height of the Dendera Light Bulbs

On the left drawing, 1 and 1' have the same height. On the right drawing, 2 and 2' have the same height as well. And same thing on the drawing above, with the venom coming out of the snake : the height of the starting passage equals the maximum height of the fog.

The fog of microdroplets was limited by the height of the passage.

It is still unclear to me if that means that 1 and 2, strictly represent the horizontal passage of the Great Pyramid, where the cooling fog was created, or if it also includes the inclined well (the ascending passage) from where the pressurized water was coming from.

Dendera Light Bulb Debunked Evaporative Cold Carrier Psychrometric Diagram

The evaporative cold is powered on the fact that when liquid water is in presence of warm and dry air, it is transforming itself naturally into evaporated water by taking the energy into the air. The air ends up with less energy : it cools down. The dryer is the air at the beginning of the process, the more water it will be able to accept : the air is progressively charging himself in humidity along the process.

If the air starts at 10% humidity and will not be able to go farther than a 90% humidity rate at the end of the process, then starting at 25°C it will cool down to 11.5°C (diagram below).

But in the pyramid, the temperature is a steady 20°C and in my opinion would have start the process at close to 0% humidity to end up at 100% humidity.

Starting at 20°C it would have end up at 6.5°C if the process was adiabatic (atmospheric pressure), but if the air pushed by the impactor also pressurized the horizontal cooling passage, it would have been more efficient.

I personally think they could have cool down the Queen's chamber around 5°C (41°F).


Dendera Light Electric Lamp Bulb Hathor Temple Ancient Egypt Electricity

Dendera Light drawing from the New York Public Library (Digital Collections). Grand Temple de Denderah, Crypte n°4. Author: Auguste Mariette (1821-1881):


2.07  The character with the 2 knives

The Carrier diagram above, shows us that they probably didn't have any trouble getting to a 10°C inside the Queen's chamber (50°F) ; but like I said I wouldn't be surprised they could get to 5°C (41°F).

That minimum temperature is actually very important, because it could tell us precisely what process was used to make the sodium carbonate. It could have been the Solvay process, or the Hou process, which is a variant more effective.

For what I know, but I'm not a chemist, the cold could have been used for 2 major reasons : cool down the ammoniated tower where the brine (around 50% salt solution) was saturated with the ammonia NH3 and the carbonation tower where the ammoniated brine got saturated with CO2 coming from the kiln.

The character with 2 knives and a frog face, could maybe point to the good direction, because in the Hou process, a 10°C temperature is enough to cool down the carbonation tower and the ammonium chloride precipitate into the sodium chloride solution (the brine).

The precipitation of the ammonium chloride from the sodium chloride solution, results in a separation of the 2 components. And in my opinion, the separation of these 2 components is exactly what the 2 knives mean.

The knives are not here to protect anybody or anything, they don't even really mean cut.

The knives mean separateThere are 2 knives because 2 components needed to be separated.


2.08  The frog face of the character with the 2 knives

This is maybe a little far-fetched, but this frog face could also perfectly fit in the theory. Because, the precipitation of the ammonium chloride in the brine, is the separation of a solid component from a liquid phase.

And that is precisely what a frog do when passing from a tadpole living in the water, to an adult frog living in the air.

The frog face means separate from a liquid phase.


Ampoules de Denderah dans Temple de la Déesse Hathor Electricite Ancienne Egypte

Left image : Nelumbo nucifera seed head.

Right image : lotus root internal structure.


2.09  The Lotus Flower of Nefertem real meaning : the fog nozzle

Because the Dendera Light bulb is originating from the Lotus Flower, we know that the Lotus flower was another representation of the fog nozzle : most probably the metaphor about this Lotus Flower is about the very particular structure of its seed head that looks like a perfect shower head, and its roots that are showing many tubes, a perfect metaphor of the water supply pipe of the nozzle.


2.10  The shower head like lotus seed head

These images of sacred lotus are probably more than I did before explaining the reason why the lotus, or "sacred lotus" has been chosen by ancient Egyptians as a metaphoric representation of the fog nozzle of the Great Pyramid.

Not only the lotus seed head looks like a perfect shower head, but the inside of the lotus root is also showing many tubes. Most probably this is purely metaphoric, and the real fog nozzle was like I've already suggested before, very close to the design of a modern firefighter fog nozzle, with many "teeth" that would have been represented into the petals of the lotus flower.


Djed Pillar Dendera Light Electric Bulb Evaporative Cooling Ancient Egyptian Technology

The Dendera Light, the Djed pillar, the water sign and the Ankh symbol are about Solvay towers evaporative cooling.


2.11  The representation of the Solvay towers cooling with the power of water

The above left image is absolutely fantastic, because it shows the entire process of the Solvay towers cooling, using evaporative cold, meaning using the power of water. The bubble held by the Djed pillar is the exact same thing that the Dendera Light; the only difference is that the Dendera Light is a better representation of the fog of microdroplets of liquid water created by the fog nozzle inside the horizontal passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

As explained in Section about Akhenaten/Nefertiti/Shu/Tefnut and the Aten, the Ankh is the representation of the evaporative cold itself.

Because inside the bubble there is a snake/water sign, we know that what is given to the Djed pillar is made of water : this is not just cooling, this evaporative cooling.


Kebechet Egyptian Goddess Qebehet Cooling Water Mummification Deity Ancient Egypt

2.12  The name of the serpent goddess of embalming liquid Kebechet, that refreshes and purifies the pharaoh, means literally "cooling water"

This idea of a serpent representing water and cold, involved in the mummification process (the natron is the salt used for this occasion), and that progressively emerged from my work, is actually a genuine one, and she has a name : goddess Kebechet.

Wikipedia : "In Egyptian mythology, Kebechet (also transliterated as Khebhut, Kebehut, Qébéhout, Kabehchet and Kebehwet) is a goddess, a deification of embalming liquid."

"Her name means cooling water" and "in the Pyramid Texts, Kebechet is referred to as a serpent who "refreshes and purifies" the pharaoh..." . Also : "Kebechet was thought to give water to the spirits of the dead while they waited for the mummification process to be complete."

On this artifact of Kebechet, my interpretation is the following : the snake represents the entire sequence of the pressurized water spat out of the inclined well. The tail of the snake is the section of the well involved in the process, its body is the horizontal passage and its head is the fog nozzle. The structure on which the snake is put, is the horizontal passage itself, and it ends just after the step, before the entry to the Queen's chamber.


Imhotep Ancient Egyptian Architect Dynasty Djoser Sneferu Khufu Time Line

Hypothetical influence of Imhotep on pharaohs Djoser (Dynasty 3) and Sneferu (Dynasty 4) that could explain the fact he was represented with the wooden cradle float and/or the granite block weight.


2.13  Imhotep's "Refreshment of the Gods" Pyramid : the solution was here from the very beginning

Imhotep biggest influence was not in the medicine field, but in architecture. He is the one who built the first true pyramid in ancient Egypt, made of stone blocks and not dried mud bricks : the Djoser's Step Pyramid. Interestingly, this unprecedented step pyramid was called "The Refreshment of the Gods" ; and that obviously echoes the evaporative cooling process used in the Great Pyramid.

My conviction is that the term "refreshment" is not fully accurate: Imhotep's first pyramid was certainly not the "refreshment pyramid", but "the Pyramid of the cold".

Ancient Egyptians didn't master an ammonia Solvay-like process overnight : it had to be a long experimental journey, over many generations (the Disc of Sabu is dated from the First Dynasty, 3100 BCE to 3000 BCE ; and the Djed Pillars from even before that). Most probably, their biggest challenge from the beginning was cooling down the reaction chambers.

It is certainly not by accident that Imhotep not only was the first one to build structures out of limestone blocks, but also the first one to add columns to their design. Columns echoes to the Solvay towers but also to modern cooling towers (read the post about Sneferu's Red and Bent Pyramids for more on the subject).


2.14  Was Imhotep the real mastermind behind Sneferu's and Khufu's pyramids?

From Wikipedia : "Very little is known of Imhotep as an historical figure, but in the 3,000 years following his death, he was gradually glorified and deified. It appears that this libation to Imhotep was done regularly, as they are attested on papyri associated with statues of Imhotep until the Late Period (c. 664–332 BCE). Wildung (1977) explains the origin of this cult as a slow evolution of intellectuals' memory of Imhotep, from his death onward"

When Djoser died, Imhotep is thought to have gone on to serve his successors, Sekhemkhet (c. 2650 BCE), Khaba (c. 2640 BCE), and Huni, possibly Sneferu's father (c. 2630-2613 BCE). Scholars disagree on whether Imhotep served all four kings of the Third Dynasty but evidence suggests he lived a long life and was much sought after for his talents.

Maybe his ideas have been burrowed by his successor during the Fourth Dynasty, but most probably, in my opinion, he might as well also served Sneferu himself.


Karnac Temple Dendera Light Electric Lamp Bulb Electricity Chemistry

Ancient Egyptian stone relief showing chemistry equipment (unknown location).

In most of the Dendera Light reliefs, also appear arms and Djed pillars. They are not mythological symbols. On that picture, we can see what is the real secret of the ancient Egyptians : chemistry. We can also see that the Djed pillars and the temples were both part of it. The magical part of the temples came from the chemistry craft.


2.15  The arms represent the Queen's chamber shafts for the cold transfer

Once the cold is produced inside the horizontal passage of the great pyramid, and stored inside the Queen's chamber, the sodium carbonate Solvay towers had to be cooled down. In my theory, the pyramid wasn't finished when operating : it had a flat roof at the Lady Arbuthnot level. The natron production site was situated at that level, and the towers probably cooled down by pumping water or directly a saline solution into the Queen's chamber where the copper serpentine cold exchanger was set.

The arms of the Dendera reliefs are the Queen's chamber shafts, and the Solvay towers are the Djed pillars.


Operating diagram of the Great Pyramid of Egypt with 14 Girdle Stones for Evaporative Cold Production and chemical manufactirung of Natron Solvay process June 23 2023

Diagram of the operating Great Pyramid of Egypt for evaporative cold production (hypothetically for chemical manufacturing cooling of pure sodium carbonate "natron", the salt used for the mummification of pharaohs). When in operation, the elevation of the Great Pyramid was not finished, and it is only after the shutdown procedure and the draining of the inclined well, that the 3 granite plugs were finally close to one another.



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The Pyramids of the Cold version 2 by French Egyptologist Layman Bruno Coursol Table of Contents Summary May 2023 Dendera


The Pyramids of the Cold version 2 (May 2023 - May 2024)

Summary of the study and Table of Contents


Part A: The evaporative cooling process

Section 1 • The horizontal evaporative cooling passage layout

Section 2 • The Dendera Light and the creation of the fog of microdroplets by the fog nozzle

Section 3 • The water cycle glorifying metaphors: Geb, Shu, Nut, Tefnut

Section 4 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process by Akhenaten and Nefertiti

Section 5 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process in the Weighing of the Heart


Part B • The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 6 • The inclined well layout and the girdle stones

Section 7 • The Taweret "Lady of the Well" temporary sealing granite plug of the well

Section 8 • The Bes temporary wedging block immobilizing Taweret

Section 9 • The draining of the well

Section 10 • The Great Serpent Apep and the snake water metaphors

Section 11 • The Was scepter and the control over "snakes"

Section 12 • The beating Heart of the Great Pyramid


Part C • The composite impactor of the Great Pyramid (Horus, Ra, Osiris, Medjed, Sobek...)

Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris

Section 14 • The endlessly immersed Osiris stone and the seed metaphor

Section 15 • The Anubis sledge and the bobsled mask

Section 16 • The sledge runners of the impactor: Thoth

Section 17 • Medjed: the smiter nobody can ever see

Section 18 • The Apis bull and the ramming impactor's metaphors

Section 19 • The crocodile god Sobek impactor (more or less) floating in the waters of the well

Section 20 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone rising from water


Part D • The Grand Gallery's of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 21 • The Sacred "sloping paths" of the "oval-shaped cavern of the act of Hauling"

Section 22 • The central wooden caisson of the Gallery: Sekhmet and the Triad of Memphis

Section 23 • The hauling ropes of the Grand Gallery: Isis, Nephthys, Hatmehit, Wadjet and Nekhbet

Section 24 • The hauling Beetle and the Seven Scorpions of Isis

Section 25 • The Great Cow goddess Hathor and the operating cycle of the hauling Beetle

Section 26 • The 10 operating phases of the Grand Gallery

Section 27 • The guide to the Afterlife for the smart traveler and the canopic jars

Section 28 • The scarab amulet glorifications of the hauling Beetle


Part E • The very large and roughly finished sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 29 • The biosand filter sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 30 • The Elephantine Triad deification of the biosand filter of the Great Pyramid

Section 31 • The Great Pyramid's operating flat roof and the water supply issue


Part F • Chemical manufacturing and industrial cooling before the Great Pyramid

Section 32 • The Serdab and the "Refreshment of the Gods" Step Pyramid of Djoser

Section 33 • Sneferu's Red Pyramid and the accumulated ammonia

Section 34 • The Disc of Sabu and the Solvay process for pure natron manufacturing


Part G • The tremendous impact of the Great Pyramid on the whole ancient world

Section 35 • The hidden secrets of the Hermetica Emerald Tablet (around 1600 C.E.)

Section 36 • Thor and the magical Hammer in the Great Hall of Bilskirnir

Section 37 • The Churning of the waters of the Ocean of Milk (Hindu mythology)

Section 38 • The Tibetan prayer wheels and the Grand Gallery's operation

Section 39 and Conclusion • The cooling water of spitting Kebechet


Part H • Epilogue

Section 40 • The smiting Ark of the Covenant and the Ten Commandments

Section 41 • The 293 kilograms windlass Staff of Moses and Aaron... and the First Plague of Egypt: water turning into blood

Section 42 • Ezekiel's Four Egyptian pulley "Wheels within the Wheels" and the four angel ropes

Section 43 • David, Saul, two giant Goliaths, five little stones, an aeolian harp... and a weaver's beam

Section 44 • The holy water fonts and the biosand filter


Part I • The magicians of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 45 • The Legend of Khufu and the "magician" polymath Imhotep

Section 46 • The two magical eyes of Isis and the brilliant but painful flame of her twin sister's braids

Section 47 • The Aegis Shield of Athena "Subduer of the Winds" and the upper hatch of the central wooden caisson

Section 48 • The Seven Magical Words spoken by 'Divine Sealer' Goddess of Arrows and Bronze Neith


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