Bes immobilizing Taweret is the wedging block of the Great Pyramid inclined Well ©2022

Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf Deity of Childbirth and Household

Bes : the wedging block that was immobilizing the Taweret block

This post is the continuation of the Taweret post and will focus on the wedging block that immobilized the Taweret block "the Lady of the Well", the granite plug #3 that was sealing the inclined well.

That wedging block was represented and deified into Bes, the dwarf deity.

"Bes (also spelled as Bisu), together with his feminine counterpart Beset, is an ancient Egyptian deity worshipped as a protector of households and, in particular, of mothers, children, and childbirth. Bes later came to be regarded as the defender of everything good and the enemy of all that is bad."


Great Pyramid of Giza Pharaoh Khufu King Ancient Egyptian Religion Deity God

The exact position and extent of the drain hole, as well as its real fine opening apparatus are still to be determined.

Figurine of Heka, the ancient Egyptian god of magic, from the Louvre Museum E 4875 :


Great Pyramid of Giza King Khufu Ascending Passage Girdle Stones Edgar Brothers 2

The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Great Pyramid of Giza Pharaoh Khufu King First Ascending Passage Girdle Stones Block Edgar Brothers 2

The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza


Bes Dwarf Ancient Egyptian Deity Goddess Taweret Household Mothers Debunked

Hatshepsut’s birth scene, from Édouard Naville "The Temple of Deir el Bahari" (London, 1896), vol. 2, pl. 50. Image courtesy of the University Library Heidelberg : The Ebony shrine, northern half of the middle platform.


The Hatshepsut’s birth scene, from Édouard Naville "The Temple of Deir el Bahari"

I really didn't expect to find any kind of proof that would validate the fact that the Taweret block was maintained in its position for the time being of the operating of the Great Pyramid, by a wedging block , but not only the immobilized Taweret/Bes scene is that proof and Bes that particular wedging block, but also we have to note the position of that scene within the entire relief : it is located at the very end of the story.

Whatever the story is exactly, the scene showing that Taweret was blocked by Bes is at the very end of it.

We can imagine 2 different approaches :

1 • Time related approach : the story ends up when it is time for Bes to break and stop immobilizing Taweret. It would be the end of the operating period of the pyramid.

2 • Space related approach : this is a plan of the entire ascending passage that starts with the Grand Gallery and the 4 crewmembers of one hauling beetle, and end with the Taweret/Bes couple at the bottom of the flooded part of the first ascending passage : the inclined well.

Between the 4 crewmembers and the Taweret/Bes couple, there is a bizarre empty space, but again it can be interpreted with both approaches : time and space related.


[Bes]  1 • Bes is always depicted facing forwards to show he will not be moved

Bes depicted facing forwards is the main characteristic to understand about him.

In the previous post about Taweret, I suggested the idea that the bottom of the inclined well was sealed by the granite plug that is today at the beginning of the ascending passage and that this block (plug #3) was set higher in the passage : the ascending passage was not completely flooded.

That granite plug #3 has been deified into goddess Taweret, that had been called "the Lady of the Well" by ancient Egyptians themselves. I also suggested that, during the operational period of the well, that Taweret granite plug was maintained in its position by a wedging block that would have been set in the floor of the well, between the G8 and G9 girdles.

Bes is that wedging block.

This Bes block was designed to fight the pressure of the water of the well. It was designed to immobilize the Taweret block.

This is why Bes is depicted facing forwards. Bes' posture is saying : I'm invincible, I'm unmovable. Nothing will pass through me.

On the Hatshepsut’s birth scene, the rectangular block that is immobilizing Taweret, is purely metaphorical : that is actually Bes himself that is blocking her.


Haka Ceremonial Maori Performance Rugby Bes Dwarf God Deity of Childbirth Protection Ancient Egyptian

Image of the All Blacks, performing the "Kapa o Pango" (a pre-match haka) at the rugby world cup 2011 New Zealand / Argentina, thanks to Jean-Francois Beausejour :


[Bes] 2 • Bes' posture and the Māori ceremonial dance Haka

This is certainly not by accident that there is a perfect match between Bes's posture and the attitude of rugby players performing the famous Māori ceremonial dance Haka.

Both Bes and the Haka performers are saying the exact same thing : "you will not pass through me, I won't move."

The thing is that the posture similarity is not the only one : even the stories sound familiar.

Ancient Egyptians were engineers, transforming (hot) warm and dry air into cold air. That was the all point of the known part of the Great Pyramid : creating cold air for "sun god Ra".


This is an excerpt from the Wikipedia's page on the Māori ceremonial dance Haka :

"According to Maori scholar Tīmoti Kāretu, the haka has been "erroneously defined by generations of uninformed as 'war dances'", while Māori mythology places haka as a dance "about the celebration of life". Following a creation story, the sun god, Tama-nui-te-, had two wives, the Summer Maid, Hine-raumati, and the Winter Maid, Hine-takurua. Haka originated in the coming of Hine-raumati, whose presence on still, hot days was revealed in a quivering appearance in the air. This was the haka of Tāne-rore, the son of Hine-raumati and Tama-nui-te-rā. Hyland comments that "[t]he haka is (and also represents) a natural phenomena [sic]; on hot summer days, the 'shimmering' atmospheric distortion of air emanating from the ground is personified as 'Te Haka a Tānerore'".


Of course, even if Māori mythology perfectly borrowed god Bes from ancient Egyptian religion, they also adapted everything around him to create their own mythology.

But still, this is amazing to see they are still referring to a Sun god, including "rā" in his name, or even the idea of hot and cold air (summer and winter). Maybe the reference to a "quivering appearance in the air" is about the creation of the evaporative cold itself...


Also, the Māori name haka itself sounds pretty similar to the ancient Egyptian word for "magic" heka, and the name of the god of magic himself "Heka".

About the Egyptian god Heka : "Heka was the deification of magic and medicine in ancient Egypt. The name is the Egyptian word for "magic". According to Egyptian literature (Coffin text, spell 261), Heka existed "before duality had yet come into being." The term ḥk3w was also used to refer to the practice of magical rituals".


Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf Deity God of Childbirth and Protection Household

Cook Islands national rugby league team performing it’s war cry, haka, before a test match against Niue in 2015, thanks to Naparazzi :

Étui à kohol simple N 4469 from the Louvre Museum :

Details of a protective sculpture of the god Bes on one of King Tut's six chariots (18th dynasty, New Kingdom Egypt), photographed by Mary Harrsch at the Discovery of King Tut exhibit at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry in Portland, Oregon (2016) : and


[Bes] 3 • The tongue out and the "throat slitting" gesture in the "Kapa o Pango" Haka

The tongue out and the spitting water

Not only the Māori ceremonial dance Haka reproduce Bes' posture, but also his tongue out. By doing so, it is obviously a reference to the spitting water that accompany this gesture, and so to the draining of the well.


All Blacks Haka Rugby Kapa o Pango Throat Slitting

The "throat slitting" gesture done by the Māori Haka performers, has been completely misunderstood, because it really is a "throat slitting" gesture! But it is absolutely not a provocation towards adversaries : it is a gesture towards themselves.

By "throat slitting" themselves, the Māori Haka performers are only replicating the gesture that Bes is doing by holding his knife over the head, as a metaphor of the breaking off of his upper part. Haka performers are only cutting off their own heads : there is no taunt of any kind towards their competitors in that gesture.


The "throat slitting" gesture done by Haka performers really is about throat slitting, but it is about themselves

Another strong similarity is the famous "throat slitting" misunderstood gesture that the Haka performers are doing at the very end of the "Kapa o Pango".

"Kapa o Pango" concludes with a gesture which, according to Lardelli, represents "drawing vital energy into the heart and lungs". The gesture has been interpreted as a "throat slitting" gesture that led to accusations that "Kapa o Pango" encourages violence, and sends the wrong message to All Blacks fans."

If Lardelli is wrong about his interpretation of the "throat slitting" gesture, nethertheless it is absolutely not a violence reference aimed to Māori competitors. Once again, the Haka performers are reproducing the story of the drainage of the inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza : during all the performance they are showing their strength, they are saying that they will not move an inch, that nobody will pass through them, but at the end, they let it go and they are using the exact same knife metaphor that the one used for Bes. Knives and "throat slitting" are metaphors for the breaking off of the wedging block.

Bes, the temporary wedging block was responsible of the draining of the well, he took all the water out of the well and he was worshiped as the god who was responsible of getting all demons out of households.


When Haka performers are "throat slitting" themselves, they are considering their adversaries as demons who should only stay away from their part of the field. That is the real profound meaning of the Haka.


To summarize :

• Haka performers are reproducing the holding posture of Bes : "I'm unmovable, you won't pass through me".

• Haka performers are reproducing the tongue out of Bes : the water reference.

• Haka performers are reproducing the cutting off of their upper part : the release of the Taweret block, the end of the story and the end of the performance.

Don't ask me why and how Māori people did, in some ways, honor and celebrate the ancient Egyptian religion, but the facts are here : the Haka is referring to the Great Pyramid and the draining of its inclined well.


Please note that when represented with 4 knives and the Sa symbol, Bes is not facing frontwards anymore : his holding posture has been broken off by the knives. We'll see farther down this post that the Sa symbol is the representation of the drain hole of the well.


Above Bes-image on the right, from the right panel of triptych on footboard of bed (CG 51109) in KV46. Figure uploaded by Kasia Szpakowska, © Felictas Weber :


Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf Deity of Childbirth and Household Mothers Debunked2

Stela of the God Bes, 4th century B.C.– A.D. 1st century, from the Metropolitan Museum, New-York :

Dancing Bes and Beset, ca. 664 BCE–ca. 331 BCE, from the Allard Piersonmuseum, Amsterdam and posted on livius :

Egg-shaped bell EA6374 from the British Museum :

Relief or Votive Plaque of the God Bes A48 from The Barnes Foundation collection. 664–30 BCE, Limestone with red and black pigment :


[Bes] 4 • Bes grabbing the snake in his left (West) hand

In many representations, god Bes is depicted having a firm grasp of a snake, with his left arm. If we look closely to the stela from the MET and the relief from the Barnes Foundation, we can see that the head of the snake is pointed to the same place : a hole where his penis should be.

Because snakes are representations of water, the meaning of this aspect of Bes can be reconstructed : Bes, is catching the water and redirecting it towards the drain hole. And because the left arm is also somehow, the West arm, it also refers to the fact that what I called "the breach" in previous posts, was actually a drain hole located on the West side of the well.

"Bes was a household protector, becoming responsible – throughout ancient Egyptian history – for such varied tasks as killing snakes, fighting off evil spirits, watching after children, and aiding women in labour by fighting off evil spirits, and thus present with Taweret at births."

The draining of the well is the origin of the main metaphor about why Taweret was worshiped as the goddess of childbirth : the water breaking.


[Bes] 5 • The knife over Bes's head = breaking off the wedging block upper part

We've already seen in the posts about Dendera and Apep, that when ancient Egyptians represented knives in their religious scenes, it wasn't about killing anything or anybody.

Knives mean separate. Here, a better term would be "breaking off". When Bes is holding a knife over his head, it is the representation of the breaking off of the upper part of the wedging block.


Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf Deity of Childbirth and Household Mothers Debunked 3

Bes Mask from the Walters Art Museum :

Amulet of the Head of Bes, 664–332 B.C, from the Metropolitan Museum, New-York. Accession Number: 10.130.2057 :

Bes Head Amulet 51.2542 from Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest :


The representations of Bes with his head cut off : as a result of the breaking off of the wedging block upper part, many representations of Bes only show he's upper part : his head.


Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf God Deity of Childbirth Protection and Household

[Bes] 6 • The breaking off of the wedging block and the release of the Taweret sealing block. Knives = CUT, BREAK

This is breathtaking to think that during the entire operating of the Great Pyramid, the Taweret block was actually only maintained in position by a temporary wedging block (first above image). Its release is what is depicted on the center images.

Like in other occasions, ancient Egyptians used many different ways of depicting this release :

In the lower center image, we have Bes holding the knife over its head to represent the fact that the fragile upper part of the temporary wedging block had to be broken off : the metaphor is directly referring to the original wedging block. In other words, by lifting up the knife over his head, Bes isn't trying to cut the plumes of his headdress, he is just cutting off his upper part.

But on the upper center image, the metaphor is much more elaborate : it’s a metaphor on another metaphor. Bes is the metaphor of the wedging block, and by cutting off every single arm and leg, the other metaphor is that he isn't able to hold Taweret anymore. The most important thing about Bes is his "holding" posture with strong arms and legs, but if you take these elements out of the way, if you cut out his limbs, there is no "holding" posture possible anymore : the Taweret block is then released.

Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf Deity of Childbirth Household Mothers Debunked 2

On this incredible picture, the wedging block is actually represented twice : not only we have the original design of the real block, but we have also its metaphorical representation in the god Bes. Image courtesy of Dosseman, from Two Bes-shaped legs for a bed, wood, New Kingdom :


[Bes] 7 • The actual original design of the wedging block

More than just being able to validate the couple Taweret/Bes as the 2 blocks sealing the inclined well, we can do even better and have a pretty good idea of the real design of the Bes wedging block, thanks to the "Two Bes-shaped legs for a bed", at the Allard Pierson Museum and Knowledge Institute in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

As I have already said, the simple solution that I came up with, is most certainly wrong or at least incomplete.

The major problem is that the little imprint in the floor of the well between G8 and G9 is located against the West wall. If my idea was correct, this imprint would have been located right in the middle of the width of the well, so that there wouldn't have been any force applied against the wall.

Obviously, something is missing, and the wedging block was only part of the solution, but at least, we can start with something and we now also have what is most probably very close to the real original design of that wedging block : a very large base (A) that would have anchored the block into the floor of the well, and a very fragile protruding upper part (B), that was immobilizing the Taweret block, but which was also ready and easy to break on demand.


Bes Ancient Egyptian God Dwarf Deity of Childbirth and Household Demon Debunked

Detail of Statue of the half-god Bes photographed by Sandstein. Limestone, Amanthus (Cyprus), Roman copy of the Archaic style. Istanbul Archaeological Museums, 3317 T :


[Bes] 8 • The drain hole of the well and the water plumes

We've already seen that the flail was actually made of water, and this is the same thing here with Bes' plumes : they aren't feathers but water plumes, and they are getting out of the drain hole that is often represented onto Bes' head.

On the above photographs, the question is : are we looking at the drain hole from the inside or from the outside of the well ?

Also you'll note on the first photograph, that the hole in Bes' body is entirely passing through the statue.


Bes Dwarf God Deity of Music and Protection Ancient Egyptian Household

Cromo Chocolat de la Compagnie Française, Pierrots opening a giant bottle of chamagne © patrick.marks, posted on flickr :

Bes with a tambourine from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York. Accession Number: 23.6.16 :


Bes Dwarf God Deity of Childbirth Protection Ancient Egyptian Household

Bes represented with the drain hole of the inclined well

Vessel modeled in the figure of the Egyptian god Bes. Punic-Hellenistic art in Agrigento. Archaeological Museum of Agrigento thanks to Zde :,_clay_vessel,_Hellenistic,_AM_Agrigento,_120888.jpg

Ancient Egypt Faience Bes photographed by Gary Todd at the Ancient Egypt Gallery, Louvre Museum, Paris :

Ancient Egyptian Steatite Figure of Bes, God of Merrymaking and Protection, Cosmetic Vessel from :


Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf Deity of Childbirth and Household Debunked

Bes figurine thanks to ©JLNicolas from :

Spillway on the Monticello Dam, Lake Berryessa, Napa County California after heavy rains, March 2017, thanks to Phoebe :,_Lake_Berryessa_spillway.jpg


Tutankhamun King Tut State Chariots Protective God Bes Deity Ancient Egypt

Tut's State Chariot at the 2010 Tutankhamun Exhibition in Hamburg, thanks to Hendrik Plank :


[Bes] 9 • The facetious metaphoric use of the well water draining power by King Tut on his State "Ferrari" Chariots

King Tut died around 18 or 19 years old, and he was not different from kids of the same age today : the same way they are putting hot rod flames stickers on their beloved cars, King Tutankhamun did the exact same thing on his State Chariots.

Except it wasn't flames stickers he put on his chariot, but representations of Bes. Because Bes was a metaphor of the draining of the well, it was associated with the power of the water gushing out of the drain hole.

If protective figures like figureheads on sailing ships are always set at the prow for obvious reasons, the "jet reactor-like" protruding elements under the representations of Bes, are for what it's worth, set at the exact perfect location where a couple of metaphorical pump-jets generating a "magical thrust power out of water" would be installed today : the closest to the axle and the center of gravity of the chariot.

King Tut wanted to get this power for his chariot. So yes, in some way King Tut invented the first metaphorical "pump-jets".

How about that !


Of course, what I'm saying is gonna (one more time) make some people have big laughs or heart attacks…

So, to please everybody, I am gonna give another very soothing excerpt from Wikipedia's page on Bes, just to ease everything up a little bit. Here it comes, from, and in its context :

"Bes (also spelled as Bisu), together with his feminine counterpart Beset, is an ancient Egyptian deity worshipped as a protector of households and, in particular, of mothers, children, and childbirth. Bes later came to be regarded as the defender of everything good and the enemy of all that is bad." 

I hope everyone feels better now, everything is back on the proper tracks.


These excerpts are coming from an article written by Rossella Lorenzi / Discovery Channel and available on nbcnews :

"According to Bela Sandor, professor emeritus of engineering physics at University of Wisconsin at Madison, King Tut's chariots surpass all monumental structures of the pharaohs in engineering sophistication."

"There is no evidence of chariot racing from that era, but these chariots have many technical features that imply a pedigree based on racing," Sandor said."

"In a study on the chariots' engineering, Sandor concluded that the vehicles were the earliest high-performance machines, boasting a complex suspension system of springs and shock absorbers. They even featured wheels with aircraft-like damage tolerance."

"They were the Ferrari of antiquity. They boasted an elegant design and an extremely sophisticated and astonishingly modern technology," Alberto Rovetta, professor in robotics engineering at the Polytechnic of Milan, told Discovery News."


King Tut's chariots were all about performance, based on both real and metaphorical technology.


Tutankhamun King Tut State Chariots Protective God Bes Ancient Egypt

Details of a protective sculpture of the god Bes on one of King Tut's six chariots (18th dynasty, New Kingdom Egypt), photographed by Mary Harrsch at the Discovery of King Tut exhibit at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry in Portland, Oregon (2016) : and

Detail of Bes and the drain hole (with the snake in an improperly position, facing front), thanks to ©flydime and posted on flickr :


The snakes next to Bes's heads on King Tut's chariots

Just next to the Bes representations on the back of King Tut's chariots, we can see snakes. These snakes are explaining that water was gushing out of Bes's heads. Remember : snakes are representations of the water from the annual inundation of the Nile, and they were created by Hapi.


Bes Ancient Egyptian Dwarf God Protection Deity of Childbirth and Household

Stela for a lion god with Bes and Beset, limestone, Roman Period (NCG 314), photographed by Dosseman :

Cosmetic Container in the Form of a Bes-image, 525–404 B.C. Accession Number: 1989.281.94 from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York :

Soft tissue reconstruction of a Paleolithic hunter (homo sapiens) with a spear-thrower and spear (Cro-Magnom 1, Les Eyzies de Tayac, France). Natural History Museum, Vienna (Austria). Photographed by Wolfgang Sauber :


[Bes] 10 • The archaic look and the animal skins

In the above relief showing Bes and Beset, one important thing to note is that both are set inside grottos. These grottos are referring to the grottos of the Great Pyramid : the grotto next to the well-shaft and the cavity supposedly digged by the Caliph Al Mamoun.

These grottos explain why Bes was represented wearing animal hides.

Ancient Egyptians were looking at their ancestors, exactly the same way we do ourselves today : they were imagining them with an archaic kind of "animal" look, wearing animal hides and living into grottos.

Because the draining of the inclined well started and finished into grottos, Bes as a metaphor of that draining was depicted exactly like these ancestors, having a very archaic look and wearing animal skins.


[Bes] 11 • Bes as a dwarf because of the grotto

We've seen in previous posts that it is in the grotto of the Great Pyramid of Giza (next to the well-shaft), that was initiated and triggered the breach opening and the draining of the inclined well.

For that to happen, someone had to get to the grotto and secure himself from the inevitable part of the water from the King's chamber tank that would find its way to the grotto : both the King's chamber and the inclined well were drained during this unique operation. Most probably, the Davison chamber was as well drained at the same time.

Whoever was the one who accomplished this task from the shelter in the grotto, he (but it could also had been a woman of course), would have been most certainly chosen for his small size.

He could have been a dwarf, but it is also possible that the dwarf reference is only another metaphor for the small size of the person who did the job.


[Bes] 12 • The Demons and the Party

"He scared away demons from houses, so his statue was put up as a protector. Since he drove off evil, Bes also came to symbolize the good things in life – music, dance, and sexual pleasure."

One of the most important things about Bes concerns demons and what we could summarize as "partying".

If Bes was "scaring AWAY demons" and "DROVING OFF evil" is clearly referring to the fact that he was actually the one who THREW OUT all the waters of the well, the "partying" thing is completely different in the interpretation.

The draining of the well was the very last stage of the Great Pyramid operating : it was its conclusion. And what do we do today in this situation ?

Yes, we party !

Magic Stele with Taweret Deity Protection God from Ancient Egypt

Magical stele (detail), Egyptian, Late Period, 26th–31st dynasty, c. 664–332 BCE. Limestone. Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Bequest of Gerhardt Liebmann, 1991.642 :


[Sa symbol] 1 • Taweret is protecting the drain hole but she is also ready to open it

Taweret is often represented with the Sa symbol pressed onto her belly, like on the above image of a magical stele : it shows that Taweret is protecting the Sa symbol. But here, she also has a knife in her hand : she is also the one who can destroy it.

Taweret is both protecting and ready to destroy the Sa symbol.


Sa Symbol Ancient Egyptian God Bes Taweret

[Sa symbol] 2 • The Sa symbol is the drain hole of the well

The fact that Bes and Taweret are the only deities associated with the Sa symbol could only mean that this symbol is a representation of the breach itself.

On the above first images of Taweret, we can see that the Sa symbol is hiding a "pouring hole" that is strongly suggesting the draining of the water. On the last image of Taweret, she is depicted giving birth to a snake, meaning : to water.

Also, it is known that "the loop of the Sa symbol was believed to represents the mouth of a fish giving birth to water". Source :


Was Scepter Ouas Pharaoh King Power Dominion of Ancient Egypt Artefact

Draw of a relief on the North wall of the Gate of Hadrian with a representation of the Nile god Hapi, crouched in his cave and surrounded by a serpent, Isis temple at Philae, Egypt :

How to Catch a Snake :


[Was Scepter] 1 • Dominion over water : the Was Scepters are representations of the Girdle Stones

The Hatshepsut’s birth scene relief turns out to be a real gold mine, because not only we can validate the Bes and Taweret interpretation, as well as the understanding of the Sa symbol, but we can also decipher another symbol from this relief : the Was Scepter.

On the left side of the Bes and Taweret scene, we can see the Sa symbol flanked by 2 Was Scepters. These scepters are not randomly positioned : they are both turning their faces towards the Sa symbol. They are flanking the Sa symbol and looking right to it like it was their baby. Don't you think the Was Scepters have a very touching/loving/amusing kind of look, facing the Sa symbol ?

Well, I do, and I also think that somehow, the Sa symbol really is their little baby !

We've just seen that the Sa symbol was a representation of the drain hole of the well, and we also know that this drain hole was set in between 2 particular girdle stones : G8 and G9 (more information on that matter, on previous posts).

What it means is that the Was Scepters are representations of the girdle stones.

And it makes perfect sense. We know that snakes were representations of the water used to power up the Great Pyramid, so what better way of representing the control over that water, than by the control over snakes.

If Was Scepters are very much looking exactly like snake handling tongs, it is because they really are snake tongs. Except of course these snake tongs are actually metaphors.

Ancient Egyptians didn't want to talk about the control they had over snakes, but over the "magical" pressurized water of the well : they wanted to talk about the containment of the waters of the well.

This idea of having power over snakes that would be associated with the Was Scepter, is exactly what is saying the second above image. Both hands are doing the same thing : the firm grip on snakes (control over snakes) on one hand is equal to the Was Scepter hold in the other hand.

Also, from Wikipedia's page on the Was Scepter : "Was sceptres were used as symbols of power or dominion, and were associated with ancient Egyptian deities such as Set or Anubis as well as with the pharaoh. Was sceptres also represent the Set animal. In later use, it was a symbol of control over the force of chaos that Set represented."

This "force of chaos" is the pressurized water of the well.


Was Scepter Ouas Sceptre Uas Symbol Pharaoh Power Dominion Ancient Egypt

Was Scepter from Djoser's Step Pyramid, now at the Imhotep Museum, part of a doorway with blue faïence tiles from beneath the Step Pyramid, thanks to kairoinfo4U :

Monumental Uas Scepter from the Victoria and Albert Museum, London :

[Was Scepter] 2 • The containment of the pressurized waters of the well and the sequential ejection

The idea that Was Scepters are representations of the girdle stones of the Great Pyramid and metaphors of the containment of the waters of the inclined well, is exactly what is suggested by the above images from Djoser's Step Pyramid where a Was Scepter is "holding tight" something in his hands. That something, with no particular shape, is water.

Djoser's Was Scepter is constraining that water with one arm, and at the same time he is redirecting some of it with the other arm. The weird "scorpion" shape element with its 2 cuffed arms is representing the small amount of pressurized water getting out of the well towards the horizontal cooling passage.

Also, we've already seen that the Step Pyramid was involved in a cooling process : "Of course, Imhotep is most famous as the builder of Djoser's unprecedented step pyramid complex, called the "The Refreshment of the Gods.” Source :

Again, the idea that the Was Scepter is a metaphor for some liquid in motion is already known :

"De Lubicz via Paul LaViolette speaks of the was as "a living branch that conducts nourishing, vivifying sap, fluid that ascends..." and even found some was scepters "made from the living branch of a tree that had been cut so as to include a section of the lower source branch as well as two offshoots coming from its upper end". (Genesis of the Cosmos, page 30)". Source :


Tyet Isis Knot Tyt Sa Symbol Girdle

Isis-knot Amulet and Tyt-Amulet from the Brooklyn Museum :


[Sa symbol] 3 • The Tyet "girdle of Isis" knot is the drain hole in its closed and locked position

The interpretation of the Sa symbol being the drain hole is actually incomplete : because it is known that the loop was "giving birth to water", it would be more appropriate to consider the Sa symbol as the drain hole in its opened position, as are suggesting its opened legs.

It would mean that ancient Egyptians had most probably also represented the drain hole in its closed position, when the girdle stones would have completely sealed the hole.

And that is precisely what they did : the Tyet Isis knot is the drain hole in a closed position.

The above Tyet amulet from the Brooklyn Museum, is even showing the girdle stone representation itself : that is the inverted U shaped element that we've already seen in the relief of Apep being restrained by these same girdles.

We don't have to be fooled by the fact that on the Apep relief, the legs of the girdles aren't the same length : this is only the result of the perspective that used the artist to represent kind of a 3D effect.

Also : "The tyet (Ancient Egyptian: tjt), sometimes called the knot of Isis or girdle of Isis, is an ancient Egyptian symbol that came to be connected with the goddess Isis."


Apep God Great Serpent Chaos Apophis Restraint

The restraining of Apep in the above relief from Ramesses KV19 tomb, is another representation of the containment of the inclined well pressurized waters. Once pressurized and contained into the well, a small amount of the "powered" waters can be redirected towards the evaporative cooling passage.


Great Pyramid of Giza Pharaoh Khufu Gizeh King Ancient Egyptian Religion Deity God 2


Very quick abstract of the study

Ancient Egyptian pharaohs used chemistry and physics to legitimate themselves as kings of Egypt, and they forged an entire religion for that matter : gods were self-glorification metaphors of their scientific accomplishments. The end game of this technological program was the Great Pyramid of Giza where evaporative cooling was engineered in the known part of the pyramid, using the power of water, most probably as suggested by the strong ammonia smell in the Red Pyramid, to cool down chemical manufacturing of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. At that time, sodium carbonate was called natron, and it was the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs.

Ancient Egyptians were the first civilization to master a Solvay-like process for sodium carbonate manufacturing, long before it got reinvented in the 1800's in Europe. The key elements of that process is the temperature control of the chemical reactions (the cooling), and the dome shaped plate necessary for the counterflow chemical reactions to occur in an efficient way, and that plate is precisely what is the disc of Sabu.

If mastering the Solvay-process was important, it actually looks like the cold was the most magical phenomenon worshiped by ancient Egyptians, as suggested by Akhenaten and Nefertiti who represented themselves as Shu and Tefnut, the deities that combined together were creating the evaporative cold (Shu = dry warm air, and Tefnut = spat water).

Also, the very first pyramid complex, the Step Pyramid of Djoser, was called "the refreshment of the Gods".


Heka God of Magic Medicine Ancient Egypt

God of magic Heka's role was "to proclaim the pharaoh's enthronement"

The idea that pharaohs used scientific knowledge to legitimate their position as Kings of Egypt, is exactly what is said about the ancient Egyptian god of Magic, Heka (ḥk3w).

"The Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts depict ḥk3w as a supernatural energy that the gods possess. The "cannibal pharaoh" must devour other gods to gain this magical power. Eventually, Heka was elevated to a deity in his own right, and a cult devoted to him developed. By the time of the Coffin Texts, Heka is said to have been created at the beginning of time by the creator Atum. Later Heka is depicted as part of the tableau of the divine solar barge as a protector of Osiris capable of blinding crocodiles. Then, during the Ptolemaic dynasty, Heka's role was to proclaim the pharaoh's enthronement as a son of Isis, holding him in his arms."

Source :

Of course, you'll have noted that Heka is holding snakes : Heka's magic was coming from snakes, meaning that magic was coming from water. Snakes = water.

Remember, Atum is the representation of the small amount of pressurized water coming from the inclined well. Atum is liquid water ready to be transformed into vapor and this is this transformation that is creating the evaporative cold.

When it is said that "Heka existed before duality had yet come into being", the duality is about water. Duality is about liquid water and evaporated water that are engaged into the water cycle depicted into the famous Geb, Shu and Nut scene.


Ancient Egyptian Gods Deity Akhenaton Nefertiti Shu Tefnut Atum

The duality of water phases

Geb and Nut are set in positions that are suggesting the cycle of water between its two "dualities" : the liquid phase and the vapor phase. By transforming from the first to the second one, evaporative cold is created, by "magical" manifestation.


Heka Ancient Egyptian God of Magic and Medicine Ankh Symbol

Heka figurine E4875 from the Louvre Museum :

Unmanned RB 6 fog nozzle monitor for firefighting and cooling from Rosenbauer International AG, Leonding, Austria.


"Heka is said to have been created at the beginning of time by the creator Atum."


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• TAWERET : the Lady of the Well

• ATUM and the real meaning of snake representations in ancient Egypt

• THE DENDERA LIGHT and the evaporative cooling fog of the Great Pyramid of Giza

• AKHENATEN and NEFERTITI creating the evaporative cooling fog


• The EYE OF HORUS and the natron manufacturing failures before evaporative cooling

• THE GREAT SERPENT GOD APEP (APOPHIS) and the pressurized waters of the inclined well

• IMHOTEP'S PYRAMID OF THE COLD and the fog nozzle of the Great Pyramid

• THE PTAH-SOKAR-OSIRIS FIGURE representations of the impactor

• NEFERTEM and the creation of the cooling fog

• SCARAB AMULETS representing the hauling beetle of the Grand Gallery

• THE DISC OF SABU as a schist dome shaped and perforated plate designed for counterflow chemical reactions for natron manufacturing (by a Solvay-like process)

• THE DENDERA LIGHT BULB and the evaporative cooling

• SNÉFROU : la quête de l'immortalité d'un pharaon révolutionnaire (Français)

• SARCOPHAGE de la GRANDE PYRAMIDE : un filtre à sable dont le prototype se trouve dans la pyramide rhomboïdale, avec herse d'alimentation et le sable encore présent aujourd'hui (Français)

• LE CHAMBRE FUNÉRAIRE DE LA PYRAMIDE ROUGE : un four à chaux pour la fabrication de la forme minérale pure du Natron par un procédé Solvay à l'ammoniac "primitif" (Français)



• THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA WAS A COOLING UNIT FOR NATRON MANUFACTURING, the purest mineral form of the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs



All the posts on the theory of an ancient Egyptian chemical manufacturing quest, and how an entire religion was built to worship and glorify this human, scientific and technological accomplishment : click on "LE BLOG" button

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Commentaires (4)



I've already told you I would not comment the theories of yours, so excuse me if I didn't answer your previous posts.
Here though, you make a important point, because this part of the structure of the Great Pyramid is not often really looked out and I know it is very hard to understand its precise layout, because so many things are happening in such a small place.

I've made another draw to try to help and it is in that post (it follows 1/First clue : the horizontal cooling passage) :

I hope you'll find some answers.


Hi Bruno,

Congratulations for the new organization of the website.
I said to myself glad I saved all your articles, but then I saw
they are all kept online.

Regarding the copper pipe, I speculated one must consider
it's whole layout. So I suggest it was built in within the
inclined well floor like all modern plumbing is
(speculation, however, which not easy to accept, for the
whole well was carved from solid bedrock limestone)
with it's opening in some point down the well,
just before Taweret.

I also suggest that it's opening was not a standard hole
in the floor, like for instance in typical modern bathrooms,
but like a modern funnel, to accept as much pressurized water
as possible.

The exit of the pipe is of course through the junction imprint,
and from there to the fog nozzle itself.

They knew how to make copper pipes?



As offhand remark, what is on my tip of my tongue for
quite a while, is you are the only one who cracked this enigma
since it's very construction and operation, till our own days.

And I have been through of not a few theses over time.

You should write a book and it should be noble prized. Lol

The only part I disagree with you, as you know,
is the whole distribution of the water to and inside the pyramid,
as I still hold the idea of the hydraulic water ram pump.

As the three videos of Will G detaily portraits.

Combined together, as I see it, summed up this hacked mystery.


Hello Sagi,
I first thought they would have used rain water, then I understood the water supply was from the Nile because of Hapi. How did they get it up there to the King's chamber I don't have a clue.
Except for this : they used men powered hauling beetle for the impactor, why not using other men powered beetles to move everything around, included water?
The ram pump idea, inside the pyramid, I don't like it because 1/how do you make it work with the inclined well in the middle ? and 2/ it is a messy solution and it would have put more humidity in the pyramid.

I'm confident that you agree that ancient Egyptians were very smart and that they were the exact opposite of "messy people"

Remember, the evaporative process demands air as dry as possible. You don't want to add more water in the system.
In my opinion they did exactly what we would do ourselves : pumping. But with men powered beetles.

Your question about the copper pipes, did they know how to make them is funny (no wickedness here though) : they had copper and your question is 'did they had the idea of bending the copper sheets to make a tube' !!
Once you have the copper, there are dozens of ways to make a tube, with welding or material around to hold it together, like ropes or whatever…

Plus, a copper pipe is exactly what is the emblem of Nefertem and many artifacts were also representations of clamping rings.
Also, the Khepesh scimitars that were nothing else than simple spanner wrenches (Section 1)

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