Imhotep's Pyramid of the Cold and the Horus Figures holding the Fog Nozzle of the Great Pyramid of Khufu Horizontal Cooling Passage ©2021

Horus God Snake Dendera Falcon Grand temple Hathor

Horus, the falcon-headed god, is an important ancient Egyptian god that has become one of the most commonly used symbols all over Egypt. Horus's name means "he who is above" and "he who is distant" ; explanations of these meanings farther below.

Left : image from the New York Public Library (Digital Collections). Author : Auguste Mariette, 1821-1881. Image on the right : figurine of Horus DUT162 from the Louvre Museum ; Paris, France, Hauteur : 9 cm ; Largeur : 2,7 cm ; Profondeur : 6 cm. Date de création/fabrication : Basse Epoque (664 - 332 BCE).


The falcon Horus represents the Natron manufacturing that needed to be cooled down

On a Dendera relief, just next to the famous Dendera Light Bulbs, we can see a snake and the falcon Horus, just next to him. We've already seen that the snake is representing the way that the fog of microdroplets was created inside the horizontal cooling passage, and so it also represents the cold (read the Dendera post for this part).

The falcon Horus on that Dendera relief, just next to the snake (the cold), is most probably representing the Natron Sodium Carbonate manufacturing that required to be cooled down. From a certain point of view, they were creating cold, and they were giving it to the Solvay units, like you feed an animal.

They were creating cold to feed the Solvay towers and they used the metaphoric image of the snake being eaten by the falcon.


Isis Nursing Horus the Child Snake Crown Ancient Egyptian Religion God

Figures of ancient Egyptian goddess Isis with Horus. Left : Isis with Horus the Child, from the Walters Museum, Baltimore, Maryland. ca. 680-640 BCE (Late Period). Accession Number 54.416. Center : Isis nursing Horusca from the Metropolitan Museum, New-York. 1070–343 B.C. Third Intermediate Period–Late Period. Accession Number: 17.190.1641. Third image : E3752, also from the Louvre Museum. Scène de purification ; Horus (dieu à tête de faucon, debout, pagne chendjit, présentant aiguière). Basse Epoque (d'après style) (664 - 332 BCE). Right image : detail of Aegis of Isis (Accession Number: 48.73) from the MET.


I wanted to show the first 2 images side by side, because they look the same, but they actually are quite different on the lower part : the first image from the Walters Museum (Baltimore), show Isis the same way than Imhotep is on his figures where he has his feet only connected to the granite weight block ; while on the second image from the MET (New-York), the entire design of the impactor is shown, with the granite block inserted into the wooden cradle float.


The Breastfeeding of Horus the child real meaning

I have to admit I really love these representations of Isis, nursing Horus the child. Like the snake of the Dendera reliefs, or everything else, nothing that is depicted by ancient Egyptians regarding their gods, have to be taken literally. Everything is nothing else that simple or elaborate metaphors.

And the metaphor here, is pretty simple. Isis is set onto a chair (meaning that others would have to lift her : the 8 crewmembers of the 2 scarab beetles of the grand gallery), that is put onto the impactor, with the wooden cradle float and/or the granite weight block (the "heart" of the pyramid). She is wearing a crown showing the many teeth of the fog nozzle of the horizontal cooling passage (last image)… and she is breastfeeding Horus the child.

The important thing here, is of course the breastfeeding ; but this is not milk that Horus the child is receiving : this is what comes out of the Queen's chamber plate heat exchanger. Horus is given cold solution brine.

It is nothing else than the same scene depicted on the first image of this post, showing the falcon Horus waiting to be fed with the snake, the representation of the cold. It is the same feeding metaphor.

Probably that the "wands of Horus" represent the pipes, or tubes, that were feeding the Solvay units with cold solution.

On these figurines, what Isis is really doing, is cooling down the Natron manufacturing towers/chambers/units, whatever was really set on the flat roof of the pyramid.


Djoser Pyramid Sakkara Serdab Horus Wands

The Serdab of Djoser's Step Pyramid at Sakkara. Photographs thanks to Jon Bodsworth (left) and Roweromaniak (right). Top right : sceau cylindre from the Louvre Museum E25687. Date de création/fabrication : Nebhepetrê Montouhotep II (mention de règne) (2033 - 1982 BCE). Bottom right : sceau cylindre E32669 from the Louvre Museum. Date de création/fabrication : Djedkarê Isési (mention de règne) (2411 - 2380 BCE).


The Serdab (literally meaning cold water) of Imhotep's Step Pyramid at Sakkara

From Wikipedia : "A serdab, (literally meaning "cold water", which became a loanword in Arabic for 'cellar') is an ancient Egyptian tomb structure that served as a chamber for the Ka statue of a deceased individual. Used during the Old Kingdom, the serdab was a sealed chamber with a small slit or hole to allow the soul of the deceased to move about freely. These holes also let in the smells of the offerings presented to the statue".


What is interesting to note on the photograph of the Serdab of the Djoser Step Pyramid at Sakkara, is that not only there are 2 holes, but one of them had been set right in between 2 different blocks.

In my opinion, the serdab had nothing to do with a tomb, it was a cooling chamber. If serdab means "cold water", then it means that cold water would have been injected into that chamber. It could probably be a room that will evolve into the Queen's chamber of the Great Pyramid.

Probably water (or a solution), at room temperature was passing through the hole on the right (pierced in the middle of the block) ; and very cold or very hot water (or solution) was passing through the hole that is in between the 2 blocks.

We can imagine that high temperature solutions coming from the Solvay towers would have been injected through the left hole (in between the 2 blocks) and that it would have leave the chamber, at "room temperature", passing through the right hole.

The joint between the 2 blocks would have play the role of an expansion joint.

It is also possible that the "2 wands of Horus" may represent the pipes coming through the 2 holes of the Serdab, or the holes themselves.


The horizontal cooling passage of the Great Pyramid

Chemical manufacturing of the Na2CO3 (the pure mineral form of natron) was since the very beginning a perpetual fight between the heat produced by the counterflow reactions inside the chambers were discs of Sabu were set, and the necessity to cool down these reactions so that the 2 different cycles of the Solvay process could be efficient.

I presume that the design of the Great Pyramid, with its horizontal cooling passage, and the storage of the cold in the Queen's chamber, was the achievement of their civilization.


Imhotep Seated Figure Djoser Dynasty God Ancient Egypt Medicine

Imhotep's figures showing the granite block weight of the theory, without the wooden cradle float. Left : Figurine of Seated Imhotep E3640 from the Louvre Museum. Date de création/fabrication : Basse Epoque (attribution d'après style) (664 / 332 BCE). © Musée du Louvre / RMN-Grand Palais / Hervé Lewandowski. Second image : figure of Imhotep EA40666 from the British Museum


Imhotep's granite block : the heart of the Great Pyramid

Imhotep was a scientist, an architect and an engineer, so we shouldn't be surprised about the way he is depicted in his seated figurines : he holds the knowledge in his hands (or the Step Pyramid plans), seated with his feet in contact with what represented maybe the most important piece of the Great Pyramid operating cycle, the granite block that was inside the wooden cradle float.

The wooden beetle scarab operating inside the grand gallery was designed only to lift this block. The wooden cradle float all around it was only here to get the impactor back from the inclined well. This block was what pressurized the well and permitted to have the fog of microdroplets inside the horizontal cooling passage. Imhotep's granite block was, in some ways, the heart of the Great Pyramid.


From Imhotep's "Refreshment of the Gods" Pyramid... to the "Pyramid of the Cold"

Imhotep biggest influence was not in the medicine field, but in architecture. He is the one who built the first true pyramid in ancient Egypt, made of stone blocks and not dried mud bricks : the Djoser's Step Pyramid.

Interestingly, this unprecedented step pyramid was called "The Refreshment of the Gods".

My conviction is that the term "refreshment" is incorrect : Imhotep's first pyramid was certainly not the "Refreshment Pyramid", but "the Pyramid of the Cold".


Horus Figurine God Ancient Egypt Fog Nozzle

Figures of ancient Egyptian god Horus showing the fog nozzle of the theory. Left and center : figurine of Horus DUT162 from the Louvre Museum ; Paris, France, Hauteur : 9 cm ; Largeur : 2,7 cm ; Profondeur : 6 cm. Date de création/fabrication : Basse Epoque (664 - 332 BCE). Photograph on the right : E3752, also from the Louvre Museum. Scène de purification ; Horus (dieu à tête de faucon, debout, pagne chendjit, présentant aiguière). Basse Epoque (d'après style) (664 - 332 BCE).


Horus and the fog nozzle of the horizontal cooling passage : he is refreshing himself

The scene described here on these above figures of Horus, holding something in his hands, is not a purification scene like indicated on the technical data sheet by the museum, but the cooling of the Solvay process.

What Horus is holding in his hands, is the fog nozzle of the cooling passage.

Actually, Horus is doing exactly what we do ourselves when we are suffering from heat waves : we put the cooling fan right to our faces.


Horus God Figure Ancient Egyptian Great Pyramid Fog Nozzle

Figures showing more detailed representations of the fog nozzle of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Left : figurine of Horus DUT162 from the Louvre Museum ; Paris, France, Hauteur : 9 cm ; Largeur : 2,7 cm ; Profondeur : 6 cm. Date de création/fabrication : Basse Epoque (664 - 332 BCE). Center : Image from the LACMA : Cultic Aegis and Menat with a Goddess Head. Egypt, 19th and 20th Dynasties (1315 - 1081 BCE). Bronze, 4 1/4 × 4 1/2 × 5 5/8 in. (10.8 × 11.43 × 14.29 cm). The Phil Berg Collection at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Right : modern high pressure firefighter fog nozzle.


The high pressure firefighter fog nozzle

The fog nozzle that Horus is holding is designed in a very similar way to modern firefighter fog nozzles, with numerous teeth that are responsible for producing the fog of microdroplets that would immediately evaporate and cool down the air by a adiabatic cooling process.


Evaporative Cooling Fog Nozzle Adiabatic Water Application

Evaporative cooling applications, from Jaybird Manufacturing Inc. Pennsylvania, USA.


The surprising evaporative cooling efficiency

The above image from Jaybird Manufacturing Inc. is very impressive, and shows, or suggests, how efficient the evaporative adiabatic cooling can be. Of course, in the Great Pyramid, the supply of water wasn't continuous, but according to the literature on the subject, it wouldn't have been a real problem because the water injected into the system needs time to completely evaporate itself anyway : it is not an instantaneous process.

Another thing is that the Great Pyramid would also have provide probably the best thermal insulation possible, due to its out of proportion massive blocks build-up, and the probable additional sand thermal insulation added all around the Queen's chamber and the horizontal cooling passage.


Evaporative Cooling Zero Energy Chamber

The use of wet sand as thermal insulation, in the construction of cool chambers. Left : Construction of Zero Energy Cool Chamber at Thoubal district, Manipur (India). Right : same thing but at Karong Village.


The sand of Zero Energy cool chambers and of the horizontal passage at the Great Pyramid

Also, if it is true that we've found sand behind the blocks in the first part of the horizontal passage, I'm wondering if this sand wasn't actually set all around the entire structure [horizontal passage + Queen's chamber] ; exactly like it is shown on the above photographs of the construction of Zero Energy Cool Chambers, in India.

After all, when the French team who discovered the sand behind the blocks, reported it, they were asked to stop their work. We don't know the entire extend of the sand casing behind the blocks.

I first thought the sand was here to reduce the thermal stress on the structure, due to the constant sudden changes in temperature that occurred in the first part of the passage, and maybe it also served this problem ; but it was most likely to be a thermal insulation.  


Great Pyramid of Khufu Giza Horizontal Cooling Passage Sand Behind Blocks

The horizontal cooling passage of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Updated September 18, 2021.


For example, they would have been used to connect the Campbell's chamber to the entry of the Great Pyramid to complete the operating cycle of the liquid desiccant air dehumidification (with a salt brine solution). 

The dehumidification of the air injected inside the Queen's chamber had to be at the lower humidity rate, so that it could have accept the higher amount of water, and so achieve the most effective cool down of the passage and the Queen's chamber.


Disc of Sabu Wedjat Eye Amulet Ancient Egypt

The Wedjat Eye amulets are referring to the discs of Sabu that were installed inside the counterflow reaction chambers of the Solvay process towers (the Djed Pillars). Wedjat Eye Amulet from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-YorkAccession Number: 26.7.1032. 1070–664 B.C. 


You may probably already have tried to understand the so complicated story of the Osiris myth as it is presented to us by Egyptologists, and so did I, but I miserably failed on this task. It is at least ten times more complex than an Agatha Christie novel ! I swear I didn't wake up this morning, thinking of negating another part of the academic explanations on ancient Egyptian culture and religion, but it looks like it anyway, and I apologize for that.


Horus's name means "he who is above" and "he who is distant"

If you remember, I suggested that the Great Pyramid wasn't finished at the time of its operation, there was a flat roof at the Lady Arbuthnot's chamber level ; and everything we know today of this pyramid was designed for the cold production : the Lower part of the pyramid was for cold production and the cooling regulation of the Solvay towers that were set on the flat roof, that is the Upper part of the pyramid.

Horus represents the Natron manufacturing that needed to be cooled down : he was on the flat roof of the pyramid, above and away of everybody else that were working in the grand gallery (the 8 + 2 crewmembers of the scarab beetle and the team leader) to produce the cold.


The Osiris myth is the fight between Horus (Natron manufacturing) and Set (the overheating)

To paraphrase the Wikipedia page on the Osiris myth, Horus and Set were involved in constant disputes and competition over a period of 80 years ; and in my opinion, the origin of this myth comes directly from the constant attempts by ancient Egyptians to master the Natron manufacturing by the Solvay process, and in particular the control of the cooling of the 2 Solvay towers were discs of Sabu were installed.

The information regarding the 80 years of disputes, could be a genuine one : it probably took them 80 years to master the process.


The Eye of Horus myth is referring to the disc of Sabu

The Eye of Horus myth is the most valuable in my opinion, because it most probably refer to the disc of Sabu itself.

Egyptologists tell us that the many conflicts between Horus and Set, could have ended so badly that sometimes Horus would have an eye so damaged it broke into pieces ; and that is the academic origin of the Eye of Horus.

For 80 years, ancient Egyptians might have work on a project where the weakest link would have been the disc of Sabu, the dome-shape plate that was set inside counter-flow chemical reaction chambers. If something had to break, it would have been these discs, that are made of schist, a very fragile stone.

The discs of Sabu would have brake under excessive thermal stress due to excessive heat or cooling, and they would have ended into pieces : that is most probably the real story of the Eye of Horus myth.

In the Wedjat Eye amulets or in other representations of the Eye of Horus, the iris and the pupil of the eye are combined together and they represent the disc of Sabu. Each disc was set inside a chamber probably like the stone basins from the Solar Temple of Nyuserre at Abu Gorab, and these chambers represent the eye itself : a perfect protective casing for the discs of Sabu.


Set is representing the Solvay towers overheating

We've seen that Horus was cooled down because he was fed with cold (the snake of the Dendera reliefs, the breastfeeding by Isis and the fog nozzle pointed directly to his head) ; so who is Set ?

Well, Set could be seen as the Evil responsible for the towers overheating. To summarize the conflict between Horus (the Natron Na2CO3 manufacturing) and Set, we could say that Horus had to fight constantly against an overheated process. Sometimes he won, and sometimes he didn't. When Set won, one or many discs of Sabu could have been broken.


The origin of Upper and Lower Egypt : Upper and Lower Pyramid

From Wikipedia : "The cases in which the combatants divide the kingdom, and the frequent association of the paired Horus and Set with the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, suggest that the two deities represent some kind of division within the country"… " Horus is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt"… " The Lower Egyptian followers of Horus then forcibly reunified the land, inspiring the myth of Horus's triumph".

I've been feeling weird about this Lower and Upper Egypt since a long time now, and then I stumbled on this particular part of the Wikipedia page : " Horus is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt".

Because what we know from the Horus figures, is that Horus is often associated with Isis : she is breastfeeding him (the cold solution). 

Horus "on the flat roof of the pyramid" was associated with the Lower part of the Great Pyramid so that the Natron manufacturing would be successful. Horus and the Lower part of the Great Pyramid were working together against the overheating of the Solvay towers that were installed on the Upper part of the Pyramid.

The flat roof of the Great Pyramid* might be the origin of the Lower and Upper Egypt.


*Of course, I am talking a lot about the Great Pyramid here, but this is just an example ; the distinction between lower and upper parts of the different structures that had been used over 80 years to master the cooling of the Solvay process might has been quite the same over time. In particular, they always had to construct steep ramps and platforms, in pyramids, mastabas, or other structures all other Egypt.


Great Pyramid Khufu Giza Ancient Egypt Cooling Refreshment Operating Process


The operating of the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza, updated September 17, 2021 (revisions of : the Horus fog nozzle, the axle beam for the 3 ropes of the grand gallery, the subterranean recess granite block weight of the impactor, the high pressure resistant clamping rings and the repositioning of the 3 granite plug blocks in the inclined well).


Nefertem God Khepesh Scimitar Amulet Ancient Egypt Spanner Wrench

Top left photograph above : a modern spanner wrench designed to connect or disconnect metal fittings. The tooth at the end of the curved part of the tool is designed to engage onto the protuberances of the fitting. Other pictures are ancient Egyptians Khepesh Scimitars (exact dating is unknown to me).


The Khepesh Scimitars of the Nefertem amulets were spanner wrenches for copper fittings

According to scholars, "ancient Egyptian God Nefertem (also Nefertum, or Nefertemu) was the god of the lotus blossom who emerged from the primeval waters at the beginning of time". That would be the reason of the huge lotus blossom that Nefertem amulets displayed on their heads.

But most of the time, Nefertem is also having a Khepesh-Scimitar on the right hand, that is described as a warfare blade with sharpened edges, even if many examples have dull edges that apparently were never intended to be sharp.


Why ancient Egyptian Khepeshes aren't sharp and were never be designed for warfare

According to scholars, again, "it may therefore be possible that some Khepeshes found in high-status graves were ceremonial variants". But in my opinion, the idea that the reason why some Khepeshes weren't sharp at all, would be because they would have been for ceremonial use, couldn't be more wrong. Even today, the ceremonial Japanese katanas are maybe the most sharp of all katanas precisely because they are for ceremonial use. They are the best and the most expensive ones. The only katanas or any other kind of sword, that would be with dull edges, are the ones for kids to play, and they would be in plastic or wood.


Ancient Egyptians were using spanner wrenches in the pyramids

My interpretation of the Khepesh hold by Nefertem is radically different. I keep saying that pressurized water was directed towards the fog nozzle of the horizontal cooling passage of the Great Pyramid, and for that to be possible, pressure resistant pipes were needed, and that is exactly what is depicted in the Nefertem emblem.

But there is more, because to connect the pipe to the fog nozzle, or pipe pieces to each other, they would certainly have to use fittings. And as a former winemaker, I know one thing for sure about pipes and fittings : when you want to connect or disconnect these elements, you cannot do anything without a spanner wrench (maybe not in the US or in Canada where screw fittings are very rare, but in France, at least).

The Khepesh that Nefertem is holding isn't for warfare, it is a spanner wrench.


The higher position of the tooth indicates that their fittings weren't screw fittings

We can see on the ancient Egyptian Khepeshes that the tooth is placed higher in relation to the handle axis than on the modern spanner wrenches and it could mean that the hook system was different : on the modern tool photographed above, the tooth is designed to hook to an external piece of a screw fitting, but the artifacts of the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden show they were not using screw fittings.


Ancient Egyptian Shen Ring Faience Material Clamp Museum

Left (loose clamp) : EG-ZM2426 (3.2 x 3.8 x 1.3 cm) and : EG-ZM2425 (locked clamp) (3.5 x 3.6 x 1.6 cm) from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden. Material : faience. Right Ring, Accession Number: 2008.190.289 (1070 - 712 BCE) from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York


The representations of quick-release clamping rings 

On the above figures of Horus, the fog nozzle is completely disconnected from the Nefertem copper pipe, and Horus hold it in both hands. To disconnect and reconnect the nozzle to the rest of the equipment, you need 2 things : high pressure resistant clamping rings and a spanner wrench.

I've already found the spanner wrench, it is very often associated with figures of Nefertem and, thanks to Elizabeth Fleming from the Griffith Institute and her colleague Cisco, I've just found representations of the clamps in the National Museum of Antiquities Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, Netherlands.

These clamp rings were quick-release clamps


Ancient Egyptian Faience Clamping Ring Mikalor Super Heavy Duty Hose Clamp

Left : Shen Ring from the LACMA, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Egypt, New Kingdom - Ptolemaic Period (1569 - 31 BCE). Diameter: 1 1/4 in. (3.175 cm). Center : Ring figure in faience from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York : Accession Number : 17.194.2307, Diam. 3 cm (1 3/16 in.); Bezel: L. 4.5 cm (1 3/4 in.) Right : modern Mikalor Super Heavy Duty Hose Clamp


The representations of permanent clamping rings

Additionally to these quick-release clamping rings, we can also find representations of more permanent connections, like the 2 representations on the above photographs. These clamps could have been used to connect different pipe sections together probably not in the cooling passage itself, but everywhere in the pyramids, mastabas, etc.


Great Pyramid Khufu Giza Grand Gallery Top Stone Ramp Ascending passage Ancient Egyptian 02

Top view of the wooden gantry beetle scarab that was operated inside the grand gallery of the Great Pyramid, and in every single other structures with both steep ramps and massive single block platforms (in other pyramids, at Dendera...).


Khufu Pharaoh Dynasty List King Rulers Ancient Egypt History Platform Grand Gallery

Image on the left : Red granite stone EA1097 from the British Museum : "Fragment of red granite relief: Horus name of Khufu". Center : Pharaoh's Horus name (Serekh name), and Dynasties in ancient Egypt, from Wikipedia : List of Pharaos (French version)


The Serekh refer to single block platforms and ramps used for operating wooden beetle scarabs

From around 3300 BCE (Before Current Event) with The Gerzeh culture, also called Naqada II, to the reign of Khufu 2589–2566 BCE : it is about 700 years of technological research on chemical manufacturing that since the very beginning, was supported by man powered beetle scarabs. These wooden pieces of equipment needed 2 things to work : inclined ramps and a huge solid anchor structure, like the massive single block that is the top platform of the grand gallery of the Great Pyramid.

These 2 components are what represent the Serekh.


Great Pyramid of Khufu Massive Single Block Platform Top Grand Gallery


The single massive block that is the platform of the grand gallery of the Great Pyramid was designed to sustain huge structural stress due to the operating of the wooden beetle scarab (onto the 2 lateral ramp-benches), and the impactor moving caisson (inside the central gutter).


Ancient Egyptians and Leonardo da Vinci

The ancient Egyptians were involved in chemical manufacturing since at least the Dynasty 0, like it is suggested by the Serekh names list and the fact that the disc of Sabu is dated from the first Dynasty. They were most probably slowed down in their research by the lack of power, because contrary to what the western world had in the 1700's or 1800's in Europe, they didn't have the steam engine. In Europe, it took about 250 years to achieve the Emergence of the technology (1500 to 1750), with the Renaissance and Leonardo da Vinci ; and another 150 years for the Industrial Revolution (1750 to 1900).

My guess is that, in some ways, ancient Egyptians got stuck in the first step of technological evolution : they were a civilization living the Emergence of the technology.

From what I'm describing of the Great Pyramid operation and in particular the wooden gantry and the impactor, it would have been something Leonardo da Vinci could very easily have done himself.

Most probably Imhotep was the first Leonardo da Vinci !


Hathor Bat Menkaura par Chipdawes Wiki

Left : image from Chipdawes, on Wikipedia.Triad statue of pharaoh Menkaura, accompanied by the goddess Hathor (on his right) and the personification of the nome of Diospolis Parva (on his left). Material:Graywacke. Dimensions: Height 93 cm. Width 47 cm. c. 2530 B.C.E. Center image : sceau cylindre from the Louvre Museum E25687. Date de création/fabrication : Nebhepetrê Montouhotep II (mention de règne) (2033 - 1982 BCE). Right image : sceau cylindre E32669 from the Louvre Museum. Date de création/fabrication : Djedkarê Isési (mention de règne) (2411 - 2380 BCE).


The "wands of Horus" and the cold exchanger supply tubes representation

Actually, the wands of Horus are hollow cylinders that can represent 2 things : the high pressure resistant copper pipe that supplied the fog nozzle in pressurized water and the cold exchanger supply pipes. 

The fact is that the diameter of the hollow part is so tiny that it most probably represent, in my opinion, the copper pipes for the supply of the cold exchanger, maybe in chemical solutions coming directly from the Solvay towers. The flow inside these pipes, or tubes, didn't have to be high at all.

It is possible that the "2 wands of Horus" may represent the pipes coming through the 2 holes of the Serdab, or the holes themselves.


Plate Heat Exchanger for Cold Queen Chamber

Left image from the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Providence : Ptah-Sokar-Osiris / wood, gesso, and paint, 332-30 BCE. Second image from the Penn Museum blog. Third image is a SWEP Plate Heat Exchanger and the last image is a complete plate heat exchanger from V Thermo Enterprises, Hyderabad, Telangana.


The plate cold exchanger of the Queen's chamber

Since the beginning of the study, I keep talking about "serpentine cold exchanger"  but I was most probably wrong about that. Many representations of the design of the cold exchanger actually exist, and they are all saying the same thing : they were using a plate cold exchanger.

The last picture is very interesting, because it shows what could have looked like the cold exchanger, in its actual size, perfectly adapted to the Queen's chamber dimensions.


The niche of the Queen's chamber

If a massive plate cold exchanger was installed inside the Queen's chamber, then some equipment necessary for lifting, cleaning and reassembling the plates, from time to time, could have been set inside the niche of the chamber.


Ptah Sokar Osiris Figurine Figure Base Plate Heat Cold Exchanger

Left : base for a Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure with model burial. Ptolemaic Period 332 BCE-30 BCE. NGV National Gallery of Victoria, Australia. Center : plate heat exchanger from Onda, Italy. Right : plate heat exchanger from WilTec Wildanger Technik GmbH, Germany.


Could the artifact put on the NGV Ptah-Sokar-Osiris base, be a representation of the plate cold exchanger ? Could the Y-shape piece be a foot or another part of the structure ?


Horus God Coffin Ancient Egyptian Louvre Museum

Left and center : figurine / sarcophage de faucon E 3058 from the Louvre Museum. Right : Barque Sphinx from the Metropolitan of Fine Arts, New-York, Dynasty 26. Accession Number: 2011.96


The top part of the impactor wooden caisson

These 2 figures could be very important to recreate the original design of the moving caisson, the impactor of the inclined well (the ascending passage).

I first thought that the second and top part of the wooden cradle float would have been quite a perfect copy of the bottom one, the one depicted in so many figure bases. The "Imhotep granite weight" would have been set at one end of the caisson, and in height halfway.

But if these  artifacts have to be taken literally, we need to change plans and probably the top part was very thin, very much like a lid.

Maybe the groove that is set on this lid, is as important and had a function. We can imagine that the ramps of the grand gallery were covered with a wooden floor that extended a few centimeters off the ramps and inside this groove to lock the impactor in a vertical plane, preventing any false movement.

Please note that Horus the falcon is set on the granite block, and not onto the wooden cradle. The only particular thing is that the block has been placed in the middle of the cradle, instead of at one end of it, like in the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures.


Great Pyramid Khufu Portcullis King Antechamber Granite Limestone

The antechamber of the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza.


Four Sons of Horus Coffret serviteurs funéraires couvercle bombé

Coffret à serviteurs funéraires N 2697, from the Louvre Museum in Paris and showing the Four Sons of Horus. 
Actuellement visible au Louvre, salle 643 (aile Sully, niveau 1).


The representation of the antechamber of the Great Pyramid of Khufu

under construction...


All the posts on the sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate manufacturing by the Solvay process, and its cooling in the Great Pyramid of Khufu : click here or on the "LE BLOG" button


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