Toute l’équipe 1001 tasses vous souhaite de très bonnes dégustations ainsi que de très belles fêtes de fin d’année…
Publié par Bruno Coursol dans Ancient Egypt le 08/04/2022 à 17:36
Apis was the most important bull deity of ancient Egypt. The Apis bull was originally a god of fertility, worshiped as early as the First Dynasty (c. 3150 - c. 2890 BCE) in ceremonies known as The Running of Apis, but veneration of the bull in Egypt precedes this time, and so it is thought that Apis may be the first god of Egypt. Source : worldhistory.org
In this post, we are gonna get deeper into the representations of the hauling gantry beetle that was operated in the grand gallery of the Great Pyramid of Giza, as well as the representations of the impactor.
Finally, I'll decrypt a representation of what is probably the most "unbelievable" part of my theory : the draining of the inclined well preceding the shutdown procedure of the pyramid, a formidable event that has been personified by ancient Egyptians in the childbirth goddess Taweret (also Tawaret).
First of all, a very quick abstract of the theory
Ancient Egyptians used chemistry and physics to legitimate themselves as kings of Egypt, and they forged an entire religion for that matter : gods were only representations of their accomplishments in what we call today Low Technology. The end game of this scientific program was the Great Pyramid of Giza where they engineered evaporative cold using the power of water, most probably (as suggested by the strong ammonia smell inside the Red Pyramid), to cool down counterflow reaction units for the manufacturing of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate (Solvay process).
At that time, sodium carbonate was called natron, and it was the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs.
Section 1 • The hauling gantry beetle and the impactor
Wall relief detail of the Theban Tomb TT60, located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. TT60 is the burial place of a woman called Senet. She was related to the ancient Egyptian Vizier Intefiqer (mother or wife). It is one of the earliest burials in the area. Intefiqer was Governor of the city (i.e. Thebes) and Vizier of Senusret I in the 12th Dynasty. Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TT60
Image source : osiris.net, chapter 3 "Osirian terrestrial rites" (zone 19). https://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/antefoqer/e_antefoqer_03.htm
Theban hypogeum tomb of Senet and Antefoker TT60. Image dgd_XIX posted on osiris.net : https://www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/nobles/antefoqer/photo/antefoqer_ndgd_XIX.gif&lang=en&sw=2560&sh=1440
I've been puzzled for some time about these black wooden sarcophagus of Yuya and Tjuyu (Tuya), because some of them were showing 4 characters on each side, while other ones were showing 5 characters. Also the sarcophagus of Yuya doesn't even have a bottom floor : the inner coffins are put directly onto the floor. How strange is that!
I was puzzled because I was only thinking about only one structure : the hauling beetle, and I didn't understand all these differences in their design.
And then I understood (or I think I did!), these 2 sarcophagus weren't representations of one structure only : one was a representation of the hauling beetle, but the other one represented the impactor.
The hauling beetle, if I'm correct, was operated by 10 people (5 on each ramp), but the impactor was only moved by 8 of them (4 on each ramp). The 2 extra crewmembers weren't inside the beetle because they had to operate the latch bolts and the ropes when the beetle was coming back up.
The speed of the impactor
Also, we need to talk about the "spoiler like" design of the top part of the sarcophagus of Tjuyu. Until now, I didn't try to evaluate the maximum speed gained by the impactor in its descent towards the inclined well, but maybe we should, because maybe this "spoiler like" part is really a spoiler.
With absolutely no evidence at all, let's say with pure instinct, I'd say that the maximum speed of the impactor would have been maybe close to 60 or 65 km/h, but again, this is only guesswork (that would be around 40 miles per hour).
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure from the Louvre in Paris (top right image), Numéro principal : N 3512. Source : https://collections.louvre.fr/en/ark:/53355/cl010018325
The Sokar latch bolt representations
Left image from Kairoinfo4U from the tomb of Irynefer TT 290 at Deir el-Medina. The squatting falcon Sokar is a metaphoric representation of the latch bolts of the Grand Gallery : the cow Hathor looks like it is gonna run over the falcon, exactly like the towing scarab would do on the latch bolts. Source : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/11433106165
KV 11: Ramesses III, side chamber, Image # 21077. Left : Apis bull deity on his feet. Right : goddess cow Hathor, laid on the ground. Image from ARCE, American Research Center in Egypt in partnership with the American University in Cairo Egyptology Department : https://thebanmappingproject.com/index.php/images/21077jpg
The cow = the Hauling Beetle and the Apis Bull = the impactor
I've been thinking for a while now about the bulls and cows meaning. But here again, ancient Egyptians didn't make it easy to decipher.
For example, on the relief in TT290 tomb, we have the cow, laid on the ground (like the Hathor cow), who is clearly representing the hauling scarab running over the Sokar latch bolts. In TT290, cow = hauling beetle.
Also, like we'll see at the end of this post on the relief in KV17 showing Apis and Taweret, that the Apis bull is representing the impactor that is gonna trigger the draining of the well (even if for the occasion, the impactor is just the granite block without the wooden float). In KV17, the Apis bull = impactor.
And this is counterintuitive, because I would have think that the hauling beetle, with its 8 crewmembers on their feet, would have been represented into the bull, also on his feet, not into a cow laid on the ground.
But apparently, the angle of consideration about the impactor, is all about its power, hence the bull.
Mythological confirmation of Apis = the impactor
"In ancient Egyptian religion, Apis or Hapis, alternatively spelled Hapi-ankh, was a sacred bull worshiped in the Memphis region." Source
"As reported by Plutarch, the Mnevis bull was second only to the Memphite Apis bull in importance. Similarly to the Apis bull, the Mnevis bull's movements were thought to be driven by divine will, and used as an oracle. The priesthood of Mnevis also went as far as to claim that Mnevis was none other than the father of the more famous Apis."
"The Mnevis bull was entitled to two concubines, more precisely two cows representing Hathor and Iusaaset…" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mnevis
These excerpts could validate the previous assumptions :
1 • For example it is said that "Similarly to the Apis bull, the Mnevis bull's movements were thought to be driven by divine will."
"Divine will" could mean "by itself" or more literally "by the force of god(s)", and that is precisely what would have look like the impactor which was descending the slope of the Grand Gallery by itself, and getting back up to the top of the Gallery by the force of the 8 hauling beetle crewmembers : 2 times the Four Sons of Horus gods.
2 • Also, like I've suggested in the above top-view drawing of the Grand Gallery, the impactor was powered by a hauling beetle that was actually made of two connected gantries, one on the East ramp and the other one on the West ramp. And that is precisely what is describing the following excerpt : "The Mnevis bull was entitled to two concubines, more precisely two cows representing Hathor and Iusaaset…".
It would mean that the cow Hathor was one of these gantries, and Iusaaset the other one.
On the above drawing, I've set Hathor on the West ramp and Iusaaset on the East ramp, but this is purely arbitrarily.
The Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures representations of the impactor and the hollow underneath the Sokar squatted falcon
These Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures really show the original purpose of the Sokar falcon representations as latch bolts. Also, these squatting falcons aren't just put onto the figurine base, as we can see on the figure from the MET : they are sometimes put on a sliding board and most of the time, the falcon covers a hollow in the wooden base. Most probably this sliding movement to put the falcon into place on the figurine base is a reference to the sliding movement of the towing scarab itself on the hollow section rails, and the hollow itself is a reference to the hollow in the wall where the latch bolt would be pushed by the scarab progression.
These hollows are the 25 pair of niches of the eastern and western walls of the gallery.
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures from the National Museums Liverpool, World Museum (left), 332 BC - 30 BC, Accession number 56.21.601 : https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/artifact/ptah-sokar-osiris-figure-17 and from the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New-York (center), Accession number 86.1.88a–d : https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551504
The crucial importance of the triangle shapes on the Apis bull : the latch bolts
"The bull was selected, after a careful search, based upon its appearance: it had to be black with a white triangular marking on its forehead, another white marking on its back in the shape of a hawk's or vulture's wings, a white crescent on its side, a separation of the hairs at the end of its tail, (known as the "double hairs") and a lump under its tongue in the shape of a scarab. If a bull were found with all of these characteristics, it was instantly recognized as Apis, of course, but even a few or one would suffice. A white marking in the shape of a triangle on the forehead and the scarab-shaped lump under the tongue were often enough for the bull to be chosen." Source : worldhistory.org
Statue of Apis Bull on a sled, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, posted on http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=15258
Top : The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Bottom : Footboard of wood, from cartonnage coffin or mummy-case, depicting the Apis bull carrying the mummy of the deceased, named as Pamiu, striding over the desert towards a pyramidal tomb: Ancient Egyptian, from Thebes, Upper Egypt, 3rd Intermediate Period, 22nd Dynasty, Osorkon III, 790-762 BC. https://www.nms.ac.uk/media/1152942/coffin-footboard.jpg?mode=pad&width=700&height=525&bgcolor=000&rnd=132558070280000000
The sequential progression of the towing beetle in the worshiping of Apis
"On feast days, festivals, and other special events like a king's coronation, the bull was turned loose in a special chamber with different gates leading from it. Symbols and foodstuffs were placed on the other side of the chamber's gates, and people would ask questions regarding the future while the bull was led into the room. Whichever gate the bull chose to go through would provide an answer to the people's questions.
Once the oracle had been given and interpreted by the priests, the bull was allowed to roam at will within the enclosure while the people knelt before it in worship."
The horsepower metaphor versus the bullpower metaphor
It is funny to draw a parallel between modern engines and the hauling beetle of ancient Egyptians : while we are today measuring the power of our motors in horsepower, because we chose to use the horse draft metaphor, they used the bull metaphor to represent the strength and the power of the impactor.
Of course, for ancient Egyptians, it just didn't make any sense to make a difference between the hauling beetle and the impactor, in term of power. It was the same thing. The beetle just transmitted its power to the impactor, hence the metaphoric representation of the impactor into a bull.
The Apis bull, in a statue from the Detroit Institute of Art (663 and 525 BCE) : https://www.dia.org/art/collection/object/apis-bull-44022
The falcon wings representation of the latch bolts
We've seen that most of the time, the latch bolts were represented in simple triangular shapes, but here, the metaphor is way more elaborate : falcon wings are used, and I must admit that the similarity between the wing and the latch bolt is incredibly close.
On this particular relief of Mehuret as a cow, please note how precise and clear is represented the Sokar falcon head, blocking the cow progression. Underneath the falcon head is supposed to be a hollow where the falcon head will insert itself for the cow to pass through.
Original rope of the Solar Barque of the Great Pyramid of Giza : https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corde_(outil)#/media/Fichier:Cordes-originales-barque-kh%C3%A9ops.jpg
Menat necklace from Malqata at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York (left and center) 1390–1353 B.C. New Kingdom, Dynasty 18. Reign of Amenhotep III, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544509
The bulls and cows are not only representing the impactor and the hauling beetle, but they are also showing other attributes which were associated to these elements :
1 • The Menat necklace and the original ropes of the Grand Gallery
The small beads of the Menat necklace are (most probably) a direct reference to the original ropes which were connecting the impactor and the hauling beetle to the axle beam.
Api or Hapi (Apis, Taureau Consacré a la Lune)", 1823-25. Printed material. Brooklyn Museum : https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/archives/image/55326
Wadi Hammamat stone reliefs representing the ancient Egyptian god Min and revealing the real nature of the flail (nekhakha), Dynasty 17. Photographed by Kairoinfo4U and posted on flickr : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/25999304796/in/photostream/
2 • The flail and the water splashes
This element will most probably cast some serious doubts, because we've already seen in a previous post that the flail was also about water.
In the drawing made by Champollion of the Apis bull, it is really not difficult to imagine that water is passing through both the snake and the flail. Many people will (one day) agree on that.
There is no problem to understand that the snake is a representation of the pressurized water that was created in front of the impactor and resulting in its collision with the waters of the well (the primordial waters, Nun). The impact creates chaos and eject some water, under pressure (Atum) to the fog nozzle.
The flail is the one which is gonna cause disbelief, because I think that it is representing the water splashes that followed the impactor descent. The impactor sledge runners would have had to be constantly maintained wet, and if its speed was about between 60 and 65 km per hour (about) 40 miles per hour, water splashes would have been inevitable.
I'm conscious though, that this kind of affirmation about the water splashes will make a lot of people to laugh ; but I can't blame them, they've been fed for so long with so many cute stories, talking about good and evil, about family relationships between gods, about how important it was for ancient Egyptians to live in perfect balance in life, etc.
Ancient Egyptians were so much than that, and first of all, they were very facetious.
The temples of ancient Egypt
Do you really believe that the biggest "temples" were for worship?
Do you know that the biggest temples employed "tens of thousands of people" and that they had their own sailing ships to get materials abroad?
What do you think, let's say that 50.000 people were doing in these "temples" all year long?
These are some clues : scientific and technological university studies, research application centers, "religious" artists, physical training, etc.
"Temples were key centers of economic activity. The largest required prodigious resources and employed tens of thousands of priests, craftsmen, and laborers." Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_temple
Ancient Egyptian temples were the heart of the technological efforts for chemical manufacturing. It was in these temples that everything about this scientific program was elaborate. In these temples, the disc of Sabu was designed to achieve the most effective counterflow reactions, a Solvay-like process was developed and the evaporative cooling was mastered.
So many different impactor representations
All the above images are representations of the impactor and the pressurization of the water of the well : its general shape (Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure base), the granite weight block ("Imhotep's block", most probably the subterranean recess block), the Apis bull and the ram's horns (the force of the impact), the crocodile (the way he is getting into the water) and the weight upon Apep by the sycamore tree, legs or entire human bodies.
Section 2 • Taweret : the "Lady of the Well"
In this section we'll see how the Apis representation of the impactor is linked to the most important block of the inclined well, the block that sealed the well : the Taweret block, "the Lady of the Well", also "the Big One", the "Great One" and the one "Who Releases the Water"
The 14 girdle stones of the inclined well... and why everybody forgot the 10 most massive of them
Contrary to what seems to suggest all the ascending passage drawings we can find on the internet and mentioning the girdle stones, there is not just 3 or 4 of these huge blocks in the passage. Actually, the entire passage, from the G4 girdle (the lower of the usual girdles) to the lower part of the passage (right to the connection with the descending passage), is nothing else than 100% girdle stones.
The fact is that when the Edgar brothers tried to understand the function of these girdle stones back in the early 1900's, they couldn't make any sense of them all. They were only interested in finding distances between blocks in order to associate these distances to Bible or other historical events. They were able to do that with G1, G2, G3 and G4 ; but girdles G5 to G14 are completely pressed against each other and they couldn't measure anything so they didn't talk about it much (and that is precisely what they wrote themselves in their book).
Since, everybody did the exact same thing and G5 to G14 were completely forgotten.
In italic, are excerpts from "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar 1910", sections 460 to 470.
Section 462, talking about the girdle stones : "Before leaving home we had recognized the importance of the three upper ones as marking important dates in the Law Dispensation".
Section 467 : "Those Girdles which lie lower down the passage than the three just described, are all in contact with one another".
Section 468 : "it would seem that the stones which form the Girdles here were originally built in solid, end to end, after which the bore of the passage was cut through them. Above the fourth Girdle, however, there can be no doubt that the passage was constructed in the usual way, i.e., that the floor was first laid, the walls erected at the proper distance apart on the floor, and the roof- stones then placed on top of the wall-stones".
We forgot precisely the more protected part of the ascending passage, and focused ourselves with 3 or 4 minor girdles. How do you want to understand anything about this passage by doing so?
If you want to understand the girdle stones layout, you need to understand that the passage was flooded and that the girdles were acting as an integrated strapping of the well, exactly like wine barrel metal hoops.
The pressure inside the well was maybe, or probably, perfectly distributed on all its surface by a another complete wooden casing, that would have allowed the well to be waterproof. It is possible though, that the seals between the blocks were sufficient enough so that no casing was needed. Probably another copper pipe was fixed on the floor of the well that would have allowed some of its water to be injected into the entry of the horizontal cooling passage.
The lower end-to-end girdles are arranged in 2 sets with different orientations
When you look attentively to the drawing of the Edgar brothers (plate CXXVIII), showing the girdle imprints on the floor of the passage (red and green short lines), you can see something absolutely amazing : these girdle stones were arranged in 2 sets of girdles, and that these 2 sets were positioned at a different angle to the vertical axis.
This particular layout reveals a dormant breach, just waiting to be opened up, and it is located right where the Al Ma'mun cavity has been digged.
The breach opening for the shutdown procedure of the pyramid
The 2 sets of girdles with different orientations are opening up to reveal a dormant breach. More amazing is that at the exact location where the breach is positioned, we can find a tiny squared imprint in the floor with a granite plug still stuck inside, and on the other side of the wall is the huge Al-Ma'mun cavity, leading to the subterranean part of the Great Pyramid.
My guess is that this particular layout was designed to drain the well for the shutdown procedure of the pyramid : a small granite block would have been positioned in the small imprint (colored in blue on the drawing), placed against the wall, directly next to the dormant breach.
This is Petrie talking about the part just ahead (south) of the granite plugs : "The present top one is not the original end ; it is roughly broken, and there is a bit of granite still cemented to the floor some way farther South of it". Source : The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh par W. M. Flinders Petrie. Chapter : Ascending Passage, page 21.
When time has come to shut the pyramid down, the impactor is lifted up to the top of the grand gallery one last time, unless this time there is no float anymore. When the impactor is released and enter the inclined well, it doesn't pop back up to the surface but sink to the bottom of the well with high velocity. When it hits the granite plug block n°3 that was dormant all along by this small granite block in the imprint, it opens the breach and all the water is drained trough the cavity of Al-Ma'mun.
The draining of the well was necessary in order to empty completely the pyramid of all its content. More about it farther below, same post (dormant breach, little imprint, draining of the well into the cavity of Al-Ma'mun...).
Remember : snakes are representations of the water used to power up the pyramid and the cooling process.
The restraining of Apep is the containment of the pressurized waters of the well
If this new scenario is right about the wedging block and the upper granite plug originally set inside the G8 girdle stone, it would also explain better than I've did before the relief of Apep being restraint by 5 elements. It is possible that these 5 restraining element are the girdles G4, G5, G6, G7 and G8.
These 5 girdles are the only ones which are not positioned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the passage ; they are tilted on a vertical axis.
Also the 3 girdles on top of them aren't complete girdles : G1, G2 and G3 are only half girdles assembled in pairs. These 3 girdles are made of 6 blocks.
The draining into the cavity of the caliph Al Ma-moun
The thing is that the epithet "the Lady of the Well" seems contradictory with "She Who Removes Water". If the well reference is to be taken in an academic interpretation, Taweret shouldn't be associate with the removing of water, but its accumulation, storage or distribution.
Taweret shouldn't be associated with the idea of "removing water" i.e. "getting rid of water".
Except she does, and my theory explains it perfectly.
At the end of the period of operation of the Great Pyramid, the inclined well had to be drained out of its water, because all the equipment had to be taken out of the pyramid : the copper plate cold exchanger from the Queen's chamber, all the equipment of the Grand Gallery, etc..
And their only chance to do it, was to use the inclined well as a passage out of the pyramid.
And for that to happen, they had to drain the well : they had to remove the water, and redirect it towards the subterranean chamber using the cavity supposedly digged by Al Ma-moun
Ancient Egyptians were the ones who digged this cavity, as well as the "forced passage".
Photograph source : "Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar 1910"
The destiny of the granite recess block
If the above scenario is correct, the recess block (4) would have taken place just next to the upper granite plug (3). When all the water has been evacuated, the breach would have been enlarged and the recess block would have been pushed in the cavity as well, in order to have the maximum empty space for an easy removal of the equipment.
However, I must say that the chances that this particular draining scenario is correct, are in my opinion pretty low. But maybe it is a good start.
Taweret and the water breaking metaphor
The draining of the inclined well would have result in a huge amount of water gushing out of the bottom of the well after the upper granite plug had moved down and revealed the breach. The metaphor with the water breaking is the origin of the Taweret goddess of childbirth.
"In Ancient Egyptian religion, Taweret is the protective ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility. The deity is typically depicted as a bipedal female hippopotamus with feline attributes, pendulous female human breasts, the limbs and paws of a lion, and the back and tail of a Nile crocodile.[...] She commonly bears the epithets "Lady of Heaven", "Mistress of the Horizon", "She Who Removes Water", "Mistress of Pure Water", and "Lady of the Birth House" [...] The name "Taweret" (Tȝ-wrt) means "she who is great" or simply "great one". Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taweret
As clearly said by Anneke Stracke in her thesis "The Hippopotamus of Deir el-Medina", goddess Taweret was clearly associated with water :
Excerpt from page 30 of her thesis : "Of the twelve objects within this catalogue that include hieroglyphic epithets of Taweret… three of them make clear mention of her role as a goddess of water. While it is not unthinkable that a hippopotamus goddess should be associated with water, it is still quite unusual that a quarter of all epithets of the goddess which survive from Deir el-Medina feature this role so heavily. The epithets preserved in Deir el-Medina refer to “the pure water”, “lady of the well” and “Taweret, who is in the midst of the purification waters of Nun”. https://studenttheses.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2624829/view
In short, some of Taweret's epithets are : "the Lady of the Well", "the Big One", "the Great One" and "She Who Removes Water", and she is referring to the upper granite plug (block #3).
In other words, Taweret is the upper granite plug : "The Great One", "The Big One", "The Lady of the Well" and "The One Who Removes Water".
Top : Api or Hapi (Apis, Taureau Consacré a la Lune)", 1823-25. Printed material. Brooklyn Museum : https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/archives/image/55326
Bottom : KV 11: Ramesses III, side chamber, Image # 21077. Image from ARCE, American Research Center in Egypt in partnership with the American University in Cairo Egyptology Department : https://thebanmappingproject.com/index.php/images/21077jpg
The representation of the inclined well in Rameses III KV11
The above relief in the tomb of Ramesses III KV11, not only is depicting the equipment of the Grand Gallery, but it is also representing the inclined well itself.
On the right image, we've seen that it is water that is passing through the flail : they have represented this water flow with what could be interpreted as (huge) liquid droplets. And these exact same water droplets are also represented on the weird central drawing, showing an inclined element from which a snake is getting out.
Thanks to Champollion's drawing, we also know that these same exact water droplets were also passing through the snake. We already knew that snakes were water metaphors, but here we also know that the water was in movement.
In other words, on this relief of KV11, we have the entire operating system that was creating the pressurized water :
• the impactor : the Apis bull
• The hauling beetle progression powered by the latch bolts (plus the impactor water splashes) : the cow
• The inclined well and its small amount of ejected pressurized water : the snake.
And we also know, that this particular snake is Atum (details in previous post).
The 2 granite blocks used for the Great Pyramid inclined well operation :
• Left : the upper granite plug that sealed the bottom of the well and was deified in Taweret, the goddess of childbirth who was also called "the Big One" and "the Lady of the Well"
• Right : the subterranean recess block that was most probably inserted inside the impactor
The completely worn out upper granite plug is Taweret : the "Lady of the Well"
If you compare the two blocks appearing on the above photograph from the Edgar brothers, you can immediately see that if the lower block (this is the middle plug #2) looks like new, this is not true for the upper block that appears completely worn out.
Also its upper face looks curved, like something was stuck to it, but maybe this is only an illusion.
This Taweret block had a story completely different from the other granite plugs. The only logical explanation about the fact it appears so worn out, is that this block, and only this one, did moved or should I say forced its passage, on a short distance. It only could have been on a short distance, because many Egyptologists said that farther away up, the dimensions of the ascending passage wouldn't allow the block to pass through.
It is important to say that this upper block #3 would have only move a few meters and that it would have been most probably forced to do it by the huge pressure caused by the "explosive" opening of the King's chamber : if I am right about this, the man inside the grotto, not only triggered the last release of the impactor, but the impactor itself triggered the opening of the chamber.
Why goddess Taweret is represented as an hippopotamus
When the Great Pyramid was operational and the ascending passage flooded to form an inclined well, in the continuation of the Grand Gallery's central gutter, the upper granite plug was sealing the well.
Consequently, this sealing block would have been permanently underwater : it explains why ancient Egyptians chose to personify this block into the hippopotamus : a huge semiaquatic animal that loves to stay, walk and even sleep completely submerged underwater.
Amulet of the Goddess Taweret 48.1555 from the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore : https://art.thewalters.org/detail/11051/amulet-pendant-of-taweret/
Blue glazed steatite figure of Taweret and a snake EA11862 from the British Museum : https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/Y_EA11862
Taweret : the "Lady of the Well" and "She who Removes water"
EA11862 from the British Museum is a very unusual figure that is depicting Taweret "giving birth" to a snake. To my knowledge, this is the only representation of Taweret associated with a snake.
We've seen in the previous post that snakes in ancient Egypt, were representations of the water from the annual inundation of the Nile : the very first snake is created by Hapi himself (relief of the Philae temple).
Here, with Taweret, we have the representation of the "last" snake, so to speak : Taweret is the representation of the draining of the inclined well that preceded the final shutdown procedure of the Great Pyramid.
Another outstanding figure of Taweret is the amulet 48.1555 from the Walters Art Museum, in Baltimore : it is the only figurine I know of Taweret that is revealing that the Sa sign is actually set on the figure so it is hiding from view a "secret pouring hole".
The small granite block that was set in the floor imprint between the G8 and G9 girdle stones
In my opinion, the emblem that is showing Taweret on her head is the granite wedging block that was set on the floor of the ascending passage/inclined well, right between the G8 and G9 girdles.
Academic explanation is that this emblem is probably a "mast" that would have been needed to put a special headdress. But if you look at the last above photograph of a Taweret figure from the Artemis Gallery, in Louisville (CO), the "mast" is way to tiny to do the job. This cannot be a supporting "mast".
Accession Number: 26.7.1193 from the Metropolitan Museum in New York : https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544864
Glencairn Museum's Taweret figurine E66. Late Period : https://glencairnmuseum.org/newsletter/september-2014-the-goddess-taweret-protector-of-mothers-and.html
Faience Statuette of Taweret Ref.1352 from Christoph Bacher Archäologie Ancient Art, Vienna : https://www.cb-gallery.com/en/produkt/fayence-statuette-der-taweret/
Artemis Gallery, Louisville CO : https://www.bidsquare.com/online-auctions/artemis-gallery/impressive-detailed-egyptian-faience-votive---taweret-1396924
The Sa symbol is hiding the "secret pouring hole" of Taweret
The amulet of the Goddess Taweret 48.1555 from the Walters Art Museum, in Baltimore is outstanding : it is the only one figurine I know of Taweret that is revealing the Sa sign is actually hiding from view its secret : a pouring hole, that is representing the original breach for the draining of the well.
"The loop of the Sa symbol was believed to represents the mouth of a fish giving birth to water as the the fruitfulness and life of the country." Source : https://www.landofpyramids.org/sa-symbol.htm
Also, the idea of pouring liquid "through" Taweret is perfectly known and accepted : "There were even vessels in the shape of the goddess, with a hole in one of her nipples for pouring. It was thought that she would assign magical protection, when accompanied with a spell, to the milk poured through these vessels." Source : http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/taweret.htm#:~:text=Taweret%20(Taueret%2C%20Taurt%2C%20Toeris,mother%20and%20her%20newborn%20child.
So if you add up the snake/water and the secret pouring hole to the understanding of Taweret, then you can decipher the relief from the KV17 burial chamber relief of Seti I :
Burial chamber relief, tomb of Seti I, KV17 in the Valley of the Kings. Photograph thanks to kairoinfo4U : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/36500349182/
Section 3 • The draining of the inclined well
This section explains how ancient Egyptians used the Taweret block to expose the breach.
The falcon headed man pulling the rope
The first thing to see on that KV17 relief, is that the Apis bull is blocked in his progression by what looks like kind of a paper clip : the bull's third hoof is stuck by this paper clip like element.
But this situation is not permanent : if the falcon headed man pulls down the rope he is holding to, then we can easily imagine that the paper clip thing flattens itself… and the Apis bull gets released.
The movement of Apis then pulls the 2 ropes on his back, and the element stuck into the ground gets out… and the "secret pouring hole" of Taweret is revealed.
The water flow can now start.
This scenario, I've already described it when I was talking about the necessity of draining the inclined well at the end of the period of operation of the Great Pyramid, so that all the equipment was evacuated.
What I said, is that this operation was triggered from the grotto, and that the draining occurred in a very particular location inside the well, resulting into the fact that the lower girdle stones were set into 2 different orientations in a vertical plane, opening up a dormant breach between the G8 and G9 girdle.
The falcon headed man laid flat on the ground and on his back... in the grotto
If someone triggered the last impactor release from inside the grotto, he would have been laid flat on the ground, right behind its opening and on the raised floor of the grotto.
If we look closely, we can even see that the grotto of the Great Pyramid is also suggested around the falcon headed man… unless it is pure coincidence that the ropes are drawn the way they are, forming a perfect virtual enclosure around him.
The release of the impactor by a slide bolt latch ?
In previous posts I've suggested the idea that once at the top of the gallery, the impactor had to be blocked in place before being released into the slope for another descent, and I've imagined that maybe another latch bolt was used for this purpose.
But maybe another kind of mechanism was used, and if I'm saying that, it is because the "paper clip" like element on Seti's I tomb is very much looking like a perfect slide bolt latch.
It is easy to see that if the falcon headed man pulls down the rope, this "paper clip" element instantly flattens itself and the bull can move again. The question is to know if this element was only metaphorical on the relief or if it also was inspired by the real thing.
"Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1, by John and Morton Edgar 1910" page 276 : https://archive.org/details/GreatPyramidPassagesVol11910Edition/page/n285/mode/2up
The shelter in the grotto
This Great Pyramid grotto thing reminds me of the Geb, Shu and Nut scene, where nothing can be understood without having water in mind.
Nut cannot be understood without water, as the similarity with Tefnut's name ('tf'= to spit and 'nwt'=water) and the water pot emblem of Nut can suggest.
The exact same way, to understand the design of the grotto, you do need to add water.
More precisely, the grotto has been designed fearing water : the grotto is a shelter from water coming down the vertical well shaft.
This is the reason why there is a deep hole in the floor to accumulate the water and preserve the upper part of the grotto.
This upper part has another particular design : its end part has been set the further away to the doorway as possible ; the doorway East wall protecting the very last end of this upper part.
This is a perfect design of a shelter, the further away from the doorway in an elevated section with a protective retention basin at the entrance.
The reason of the shelter
This shelter indicates that water was supposed to come through the well shaft ; so now there is another problem : where did the water could have come from?
I see 3 possibilities : the King's chamber main water tank, the Davison chamber and both chambers.
The draining of the inclined well
In my opinion, the opening of the dormant breach was done by releasing the impactor one last time, without the wooden part that served as a float for its recovery from the well after the impacts, cycle after cycle.
The last voyage of the impactor was most probably done using only the granite weight (most probably the one found in the recess of the subterranean chamber) and it somehow triggered the opening of the breach by breaking a small granite stone that was set inside the little imprint, precisely between G8 and G9. If I remember correctly, this little imprint is still filled today with the lower part of that small granite "chock block".
Ancient Egyptian god Sobek as a Nile crocodile with ram's horns. Both of these attributes are referring to the impactor of the Grand Gallery which was plunging into the waters of the well like a crocodile and ramming into them with tremendous power.
The crocodile putting its weight upon Taweret and forcing her to move
In this Apis and Taweret relief from the tomb of Seti I, we've just seen that Apis is a representation of the recess granite block of the impactor, released from the top of the Grand Gallery, and that Taweret is representing the upper granite block that was sealing the bottom of the well.
This Taweret sealing block was forced to move, a few meters only to reveal the breach, and that it was the recess granite block that (somehow) triggered the movement.
On the relief, this particular part is represented in the crocodile putting its weight upon Taweret.
We've already seen this weight metaphor about Apep and the pressurization of the water of the well : the sycamore tree, the men or just legs are putting weight on Apep, and they are doing this vertically. The only goal was to put pressure.
Here, with the crocodile, the pressure is made to trigger the movement of the Taweret block, and the crocodile isn't put on top of her head but one her back, like you would do to push someone forward : you push hard on his back.
The crocodile is also a metaphoric representation of the impactor
It is interesting to see that the impactor was represented in many different ways, depending on the context, and the angle of vision necessary to the narrative.
• The sycamore tree, the men and the legs are representations of the weight of the impactor and the induced pressure.
• The calves (bulls and cows) and the rams (horns) are about the shock, the impact, the collision with the waters of the well.
• The crocodiles are about the way that the impactor was getting into the water and stayed underwater for a short period of time, before getting back onto the shore.
Sobek illustration thanks to Jeff Dahl : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobek#/media/File:Sobek.svg
Crocodile image thanks to ninfaj and posted on flickr
Ram fighting, National Games, Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Asrlar_Sadosi_2008c.jpg
Image of Basque ram fighting : https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combat_de_b%C3%A9liers#/media/Fichier:Aharitopeka.jpg
Very quick abstract of the theory : ancient Egyptians used chemistry and physics to legitimate themselves as kings of Egypt, and they forged an entire religion for that matter. Gods were representations of their accomplishments in technology. The end game of this scientific program was the Great Pyramid of Giza where they engineered evaporative cold using the power of water, most probably (as suggested by the strong ammonia smell inside the Red Pyramid), to cool down counterflow reaction units for the manufacturing of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate (Solvay process).
At that time, sodium carbonate was called natron, and it was the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs.
The Dendera Light Bulb created by the lotus flower is depicting the fog of microdroplets in the evaporative cooling passage
1 • the small character holding the left Dendera Lamp Bulb, with his arms in the air, is Shu, the god of dry warm air and fogs
2 • the snake in the Dendera Light Bulb is Atum, and we've already seen in the previous post that Atum was the deified representation of the Apep small amount of pressurized water coming from the inclined well
3 • the bulb is supposed to be the womb of Nut, who is not the goddess of the sky but the goddess of the water in the sky (= moisture, hence her water pot emblem, details in previous post)
4 • Tefnut is the goddess of spat water and 5 • the "life-force" aspect of Atum is supposed to be transmitted through Nefertem
Nefertem : the mediator in which Atum is passing through
Excerpt from Michael J. Masley : "Meeks points out that the relationship between the sun and the lotus-Nefertem is well attested in the Pyramid Texts but the birth of the sun-god in the lotus blossom is known only after the Amarna period. Pyramid Texts Spell 249 (Pyr. § 266a): xa (wnjs)| m nfr-tm m zSSn r Srt ra “Unis will appear as Nefertem, as the lotus at the sun-god’s nose” corresponds to the image of the Egyptian deities giving life (anx) to the nose of the king and thus the life-force of the creator god Atum is transmitted to the sun-god Re through Nefertem. As such, Nefertem is a mediator that connects the two great gods."
Dendera Light relief photographed by kairoinfo4U and posted on flickr : https://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/14525094039/
The shower head like lotus seed head
These images of sacred lotus are probably more than I did before explaining the reason why the lotus, or "sacred lotus" has been chosen by ancient Egyptians as a metaphoric representation of the fog nozzle of the Great Pyramid.
Not only the lotus seed head looks like a perfect shower head, but the inside of the lotus root is also showing many tubes. Most probably this is purely metaphoric, and the real fog nozzle was like I've already suggested before, very close to the design of a modern firefighter fog nozzle, with many "teeth" that would have been represented into the petals of the lotus flower.
Left image : Nelumbo nucifera seed head. https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Nelumbo_nucifera
Right image : lotus root internal structure. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera#/media/Fichier:Lotus_root.jpg
Precision about the interpretation of the ancient Egyptians gods
When, for example, I am describing Shu as "the god of dry warm air" and Tefnut as the goddess of "spat water in the form of droplets", this is not coming directly from academic views.
It is the result of finding the real hidden meaning of these deities in between tons of useless information that had been added overtime and storytelling worshiping.
It is like having a car covered with tons of snow and try to identify the model anyway, or like slowly digging out irrelevant dirt to reveal a genuine artifact that was forgotten for thousands of years.
• TAWERET : the Lady of the Well
• ATUM and the real meaning of snake representations in ancient Egypt
• THE DENDERA LIGHT and the evaporative cooling fog of the Great Pyramid of Giza
• AKHENATEN and NEFERTITI creating the evaporative cooling fog
• THE HIDDEN HAULING CAVERN of the Underworld
• The EYE OF HORUS and the natron manufacturing failures before evaporative cooling
• THE GREAT SERPENT GOD APEP (APOPHIS) and the pressurized waters of the inclined well
• IMHOTEP'S PYRAMID OF THE COLD and the fog nozzle of the Great Pyramid
• THE PTAH-SOKAR-OSIRIS FIGURE representations of the impactor
• NEFERTEM and the creation of the cooling fog
• SCARAB AMULETS representing the hauling beetle of the Grand Gallery
• THE DISC OF SABU as a schist dome shaped and perforated plate designed for counterflow chemical reactions for natron manufacturing (by a Solvay-like process)
• THE DENDERA LIGHT BULB and the evaporative cooling
• SNÉFROU : la quête de l'immortalité d'un pharaon révolutionnaire (Français)
• SARCOPHAGE de la GRANDE PYRAMIDE : un filtre à sable dont le prototype se trouve dans la pyramide rhomboïdale, avec herse d'alimentation et le sable encore présent aujourd'hui (Français)
• LE CHAMBRE FUNÉRAIRE DE LA PYRAMIDE ROUGE : un four à chaux pour la fabrication de la forme minérale pure du Natron par un procédé Solvay à l'ammoniac "primitif" (Français)
• LE PUITS OBLIQUE INONDÉ (Français)
• LE COULOIR HORIZONTAL DE REFROIDISSEMENT (Français)
• THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA WAS A COOLING UNIT FOR NATRON MANUFACTURING, the purest mineral form of the salt used for the mummification of the pharaohs
All the posts on the theory of an ancient Egyptian chemical manufacturing quest, and how an entire religion was built to worship and glorify this human, scientific and technological accomplishment : click on "LE BLOG" button
I need to thank you for this wonderful post!
Faculty of Science-Med Mohamed Boudiaf University at M'sila, Algeria
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