The Pyramids of the Cold v2 • Section 50 The Colossus and the Sledge: how really were transported heavy loads and the Great Pyramid's impactor on wet grooved rails

Transport of the Colossus from Tomb Djehoutyhotep Ancient Egypt

The transport of heavy loads such as the Colossus represented in the tomb of Djehutihotep at El Bersheh is one of the most discussed engineering accomplishments made by ancient Egyptians: how could these guys everybody present to us as simple ‘farmers’ could have move on very long distances blocks weighing up to hundreds of tons? The answer is actually very simple and can be answered by every toddler you know who ever played with a train tracks set: they simply used tracks with grooved wooden rails and used water as a lubricant. And this is perfectly explained in the representation of the Colossus in the tomb of Djehutihotep: the wooden beam with multiple notches underneath the sledge is the rail… because the notches are about the chisel cuts that appear when you are making the groove. They didn’t represent the groove as it would have looked like, but they wanted to demonstrate how it had been made.

"Transport of a colossus, from a tomb at El Bersheh" from The New York Public Library Digital Collections. 1881 - 1882. The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Picture Collection:


The Pyramids of the Cold v2 (May 2023 – July 1st 2024) • The Magicians of the Great Pyramid

Section 50 • The transport of heavy loads such as the Colossus of Djehutyhotep on wet grooved rails and sledges

In summary: the transport of heavy loads such as the Colossus represented in the tomb of Djehutihotep at El Bersheh is one of the most discussed engineering accomplishments made by ancient Egyptians: how could these guys everybody present to us as simple ‘farmers’ could have move on very long distances blocks weighing up to hundreds of tons? The key element of the Colossus in the tomb of Djehutihotep, is the sledge on which is set the statue, and that also is the big problem egyptologists failed to explain. They didn’t fail by lack of imagination, but by some kind of felling of superiority. Because if you give the same sledge as the one on the relief to any toddler you know, chances are he, or she will instantly show you how it works on their wooden train tracks set.

Of course sledges were used into tracks, grooved tracks were water was poured directly into the groove, and not wasted into sand like egyptologists claim ancient Egyptians did. Egyptologists have been fooled, because if these grooved tracks are indeed represented in the relief of the tomb of Djehutihotep, they are not at all represented the same way we would today. Egyptians didn’t represented a rail with a groove inside (which isn’t even possible because of their so characteristic style, in only two dimensions), instead they described how to make the groove in a wooden beam: by first making multiple chisel cuts.


Colossus Transport Djehoutyhotep Tomb Sledge Rail Water Tracks

“It wasn't aliens: Scientists finally figure out how Egyptians built the pyramids”, by News Direct:


50.01  The use of sledges / academic hypothesis 1: no tracks and water was poured directly onto sand

The idea that anyone could imagine ancient Egyptians would have been dumb enough to waste the gigantic quantity of water directly poured into the sand that this system would have required is totally beyond me. Are you guys serious or are you just so used to people believe anything you say that you don’t even care if what you say has no sense what’s so ever; just like blaming tourists for the salt deposits found in the Great Pyramid (because of moisture generated by their breathing), when these deposits have only been documented in the so-called Queen’s chamber and the little conduct leading to this chamber. So what, tourists only breathe there? Really?

See Section 1: the evaporative cooling passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

“The actual statue rests on an alabaster pedestal cut of the same block as itself. It is attached to a wooden sledge by a system of tensioning ropes drawn (originally) in brown. The before the sledge are attached four cables, for hauling it.

Two men are represented on the statue. One is on the loincloth and is clapping his hands, obviously to give the rhythm to the hauliers, he is therefore a "shantyman" whose tradition remained until our days in the construction sites in Egypt. The man below, bent forward, is pouring water from his jug in front of the shoe of the sledge. It is supposed that he waters a thick layer of silt in order to permit the mass to slide. But it may only represent a ceremonial act because the quantity of water necessary to assist in slippage would be considerable. Further in front of the statue, is located a man making another ceremonial act, holding a censer and fanning the burning incense in honour of the statue.

Under the statue is a row of six characters. Three carry yokes with goatskin bottles or vases full of water and the three following carry a large piece of wood whose top is oddly bevelled and the use of which, certainly in connection with traction, remains enigmatic. Three foremen armed with sticks follow them.” Original text by Thierry Benderitter. English translation by Jon J Hirst. Source:


Colossus Transport Djehoutyhotep Tomb Sledge Rail Water Tracks wax

“Construction of The Pyramids”, by Animated History:


50.02  The use of sledges / academic hypothesis 2: tracks were used (but water has been replaced by wax)

The above representation of the use of sledges is probably pretty close to reality, but something is clearly missing: water. Because the tracks used are simple wooden beams, the author didn’t used water as lubricant (despite the fact that the representation of the Colossus in the tomb of Djehutihotep clearly indicates the important role of water), and instead mentions ‘wax’.


Wooden Train Tracks Transport Colossus Ancient Egypt

50.03  What is the point of having invented sledges if it is not to associate them with appropriate tracks and grooved rails?

Seriously, and I mean no disrespect to anybody, but how stupid do you think ancient Egyptians were not to use the appropriate wooden rails with their sledges? Or maybe it would have been to difficult for them to hollow out some grooves into simple wooden beams? What do you think? They used sledges but not the tracks?


50.04  Give an ancient Egyptian sledge to any toddler you know, he will probably show you instantly what to do with it without even having to think about it

Complete Wooden Toddler Train Set at


Colossus Djehoutyhotep Transport on Sledge Wooden Sledge Ancient Egypt

The transport of heavy loads in ancient Egypt was possible because of the combination of wooden sledges moving into grooved wooden rails. Water was also necessary to reduce the friction between the pieces of wood. But ancient Egyptians didn’t want to represent the rails as they were, instead they gave us a simple clue: how they did make the rails. The notches are the clue, because the notches are about how to make a groove. Egyptian sledges were moving inside simple grooves. They have invented sledges, and their appropriate water lubricated rails as well.


50.05  The wet grooved rail is right here, under the sledge... just like it is supposed to be

Slippery Wooden Deck when Wet Colossus Transport on Sledge Ancient Egypt

If you really look closely at the image, you will see that this very particular beam, as well as the water that makes everything work, they are both drawn right under the sledge. ‘Right under the sledge’... precisely where is supposed to be the rail, and the water poured directly into that rail to get the rail as slippery as iceThe beam with notches is the rail because notches are about the groove of the rail... and how you make the groove in the rail.


Transport of the Colossus from Tomb Djehoutyhotep Ancient Egypt (2)

How to Cut a Groove in a Frame By Hand and Without a Plow Plane”. "In a nutshell, here is how to make the groove: using a regular 1/4" bench chisel I am going to make a series of chisel cuts, none particularly deep, each lifting up a bit of wood. Then, as I do multiple passes, I can easily clear the chips I have raised, and then repeat the procedure to go deeper. I have a tendency to do work in sections as I go in steady progression along the board.” From Joel's Blog at


Transport of Colossus Djehoutyhotep Tomb on Wooden Sledge Grooved Rails Water Tracks 2

50.06  The grooved rail and the notches: we can't see the groove in the rail but we are explained how to do it... one chisel cut after the other

It took me some time to understand the mysterious beam with notches, represented under the sledge on the above representation of the transport of a colossus. But I guess, the more I was getting used to handle the metaphors Egyptians had written all over the place, the more I was getting ready to get used to the metaphors they’ve used in drawings as well.

And this beam with notches is one of these drawn metaphors. Because one way of representing a wooden rail which would have been hollowed out to create an internal groove to accommodate sledge runners, would be to represent a simple beam with notches on it. To create the internal groove of the rail, you only need to make many notches on one side of the beam.


Stupid Black Men Larry Elder and Lose

50.07  The endless condescending vision of an entire civilization

What is absolutely certain, is that future generations will have to sort out why ancient Egyptians have been so easily and willingly disregarded as a ‘serious’ civilization. Why no egyptologist ever wanted to look at the great pyramids, the disc of Sabu or the Dendera Light as scientific artifacts?

Personally, I don’t think it is only because their civilization was so old that it completely disappeared; which isn’t even right as we’ve already seen that every single foreign civilization probably reinterpreted in their own way the ancient Egyptian religion, and the scientific and technological accomplishments this religion so beautifully glorified (like the Jewish religion, of course).

I think the most damaging reason comes from the fact that more than 200 years ago, the very first egyptologists were French, British, Italian, German and American citizens, and that they were all full of the pretention of their time, full of the pretention of the ‘western’ ideology of the 1800s.

And maybe, because Egyptians are first of all Africans, some sort of unconscious racism was part of the problem.



50.08  The didactic side ancient Egyptians wanted to show #1 • How to move heavy loads: the wet grooved rail

I know I’m repeating myself very often, but everyone needs to understand that ancient Egyptians really were perfect scientists and engineers. They loved to do things… but they also loved to explain it. They were teachers as well. The only thing is that this kind of knowledge, obviously wasn’t for everybody: they wanted to show it, but they also wanted to hide it.

Here, what they wanted to teach was how to move heavy loads using only wood and water by creating a wet grooved rail, but we’ve already seen in previous Sections of The Pyramids of the Cold many examples of this teaching habits with the so-called Dendera Light, the scene representing Geb, Shu and Nut which actually is all about the description of the water cycle, or the magnificent representation of a magnifying glass at Dendera, again.


Imhotep Polymath Architect god of Science Thoth Mathematician Physician Magnifying Glass

Magnifying glass by the ancient Egyptians: "The astronomical ceiling at the Pronaos, outer hypostyle hall in the Temple of Hathor in the Dendera Temple complex, near Dendera, Egypt: first Band west from the centre, showing the full healed moon on a pillar depicted as "Wadjet" the Eye of Horus healed by [the god of Science] Thoth, who is portrayed at the right." Photograph thanks to kairoinfo4u:

Magnifying glass from the 1800s: "This engraving shows Dutch mathematician and physicist Jean Henri van Swinden (1746–1823) demonstrating the generation of electricity to the Felix Meritis Society in Amsterdam. The Felix Meritis Society was founded in the late 18th century to promote the arts and sciences (Felix Meritis translates as "Happiness through Merit")". Barbiers, Pieter Pietersz., and Jacques Kuyper. Laid paper, 1800–1899. Science History Institute, Philadelphia U.S.A:


50.09  The didactic side ancient Egyptians wanted to show #2 • How to make Science: the Magnifying glass

The ancient Egyptian god of Science Thoth (on the right part of the image), looking through a magnifying glass... or looking at the full moon, on top of a crescent moon, itself on top of a pillar... for some esoteric reason, I guess. Be sure that there is only one right answer here, but there is an extra clue: the Eye of Horus.

More about the magnifying glass in Section 45the legend of Khufu and the magician polymath Imhotep.


Jim Hutton as detective Ellery Queen looking through a magnifying glass NBC Television

50.10  A magnifying glass is meant for an eye... hence the Eye of Horus on the glass

Knowing that Thoth is in short, the god of Science, how come nobody ever suggested he was simply standing in front of a magnifying glass with a beautiful gilded wooden stand that would have looked exactly like an antique magnifying glass from the 1800’s?

And how come nobody ever suggested that there was a representation of an Eye of Horus, precisely because a magnifying glass is only meant for an eye? And this isn’t just a rhetorical question here: I’m sincerely asking how come people could have been so inclined to accept being conditioned by the "cute" stories told by egyptologists. How come people are so eager to continue believing in stories coming right from the 1800’s, especially today when everything is seen so easily as fake news, whether they really are or not?

Why is nobody seriously challenging egyptologists for the magnifying glass, the reason of the massive salt deposits in the Queen’s chamber of the Great Pyramid, or the girdle stones, or the sand filter in the Step Pyramid that nobody wants to talk about?

“Imhotep "(the one who) comes in peace" was an Egyptian chancellor to the Pharaoh Djoser, possible architect of Djoser's step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis. Very little is known of Imhotep as a historical figure, but in the 3,000 years following his death, he was gradually glorified and deified. […] Two thousand years after his death, Imhotep's status had risen to that of a god of medicine and healing. Eventually, Imhotep was equated with Thoth, the god of architecture, mathematics, and medicine, and patron of scribes: Imhotep’s cult was merged with that of his own former tutelary god.”

Jim Hutton as detective Ellery Queen, looking through a magnifying glass, courtesy of NBC Television:


Dendera Light Bulb with Snake Lotus Flower Seed Pod Ancient Egypt Hathor Temple

Didactic representation of the Dendera Light explaining that it is made of a fog of microdroplets of liquid water, and that it was "produced" just like the sprayed venom of a spitting snake.


Dendera Light Lotus Flower Seed Pod Ancient Egypt Hathor Temple

50.11  The didactic side ancient Egyptians wanted to show #3 • How to produce a fog of microdroplets: the Lotus seed 'shower head' metaphor

The lotus flower from which the Dendera Light is coming out, isn't really about the flower, but the seed pod emerging from water: the pod looks exactly like a shower head giving birth to multiple little water jets, just like the fog nozzle of the evaporative cooling passage of the Great Pyramid that produced the fog of microdroplets.

Dendera Light relief drawing on the left : please notice that what seems to be important here isn't the snake, but the spat venom of the snake. Also, you can see that the characters holding the snake are showing a double outline, the same way that the character holding (or offering) the Dendera Light does, on the right part of the drawing. The Dendera Light is produced by the snake, or as explained : by the venom of the snake. This particular relief is describing how was produced the microdroplets fog of sprayed water. Dendera Light drawing from the New York Public Library (Digital Collections). Author : Auguste Mariette, 1821-1881. Source:

Lotus seed pods from


Water Cycle in ancient Egypt Shu Tefnut Geb Evaporative Cooling Gods

Geb only is the glorification of water in its liquid phase (water in which you can swim into). Backstroke technique:

Nut only is the glorification of water in its vapor phase (water that is supported by dry air, which is Shu himself). Diving drawing:


50.12  The didactic side ancient Egyptians wanted to show #4 • How to demonstrate the water cycle

Ancient Egyptian representation of a basic fundamental principle of physics and its application for the production of evaporative cooling in the Great Pyramid of Giza: the water cycle between the two liquid and vapor phases, and the role of dry air as support for humidity.

More about Geb, Shu and Nut and the water cycle in Section 3


Colossus Transport Djehoutyhotep Tomb Sledge Rail Water

Representation of the transport of a colossus in the inner chamber of the tomb of Djehutyhotep, the most important and the best preserved of the tombs of the site of el-Bersheh. Djehutyhotep, translates in "Thoth is satisfied", was an ancient Egyptian nomarch of the fifteenth nomos of Upper Egypt ("the Hare") during the twelfth dynasty, c. 1900 BCEPhotograph by Raymond Betz, view 46:


50.13  The wooden beam with the chisel cuts and the water... just under the sledge, as it should be


Wooden Train Tracks Transport Colossus Ancient Egypt Water in the Sand

Tiny Land Wooden Train Tracks Set:


50.14  A whole new perspective for future reconstitutions of construction sites

Would it be possible to imagine ancient Egyptians deal with an estimated 2.3 million blocks if they didn’t use some kind of very efficient logistical system to store, move and redirect these blocks?

“The Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks. Approximately 5.5 million tonnes of limestone, 8,000 tonnes of granite, and 500,000 tonnes of mortar were used in the construction.”


Operating Diagram of the Great Pyramid of Giza Khufu Egypt for Evaporative Cold Production Grand Gallery June 27 2024

Operating diagram of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Giza for evaporative cold production by flash evaporation (through production of both pressurized water and pressurized air), showing the crucial role of the composite impactor on its sledge runners and associated to the hauling Beetle with its six crewmembers and their leader. Reconstitution based on the many metaphors used as self-glorifications made by ancient Egyptians themselves in their religion, and in their reinterpretations in the Jewish religion (see The Pyramids of the Cold, Sections 40 to 43 and 49 firstly) .


50.15  The composite impactor was also running on a sledge and into rails

More on the impactor's sledge and the explanation of Anubis, in Section 27


Eye of Horus Ra Isis Antique Ship Mooring Bollard Bitt Eye Splice Natural Rope

50.16  The splicing Eyes of Isis (Isis is the 2 central ropes hauling the impactor), the Eye of Horus and the Eye of Ra

Because you could have named the impactor either Horus (the composite impactor) or Ra (the wooden part of the impactor that is transporting the Osiris weight), when the 2 splicing eyes of the hauling ropes (that is the Eyes of Isis) would be connected to their respective bollards onto the impactor, you would have reunite the Eye of Horus and the Eye of Ra.


Operation of the Grand Gallery Great Pyramid of Giza Khufu Side View April 5 2024

Diagram of the operation of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Giza, last updated on April 5, 2024.


50.17  Operating diagram of the Grand Gallery of Giza in operation 

The most incredible thing about ancient Egypt, is that because of the glorification process that have been made of every single part of the operation process of the Great Pyramid into thousands of gods and goddesses, everything can be reconstructed. The only thing to do (sic) is to understand the tens of thousands of metaphors that have been used as a support of this glorification process. Most probably, that is the Grand Gallery and the operation of the impactor that have been the center of the attention and which concentrate most of these metaphors.

Maybe even more incredible is the extraordinary impact that it all had on foreign civilizations like the Greeks (previous Sections 47 and 48 ), or even in the birth of the Jewish religion (previous Sections 40 to 43).


Operating Diagram of the Great Pyramid of Egypt Giza for Evaporative Cold Production June 15 2024

Operating diagram of the Great Pyramid of Giza for evaporative cold production by flash evaporation (through production of both pressurized water and pressurized air), showing the crucial role of the lower end of the inclined well, with the Taweret plug of the well just waiting to be forced down to trigger the draining of the waters of the well towards the subterranean chamber through the Al-Ma’mun cavity. Diagram last updated June 15, 2024.


50.18  Operating diagram of the Great Pyramid of Giza in operation 

At that time, the Pyramid wasn't finished and looked exactly like the mastabas Egyptians built before the great pyramids. See Section 31: the flat roof of the operating Great Pyramid and the water supply issue.


The Pyramids of the Cold The Transport of the Colossus by French Egyptologist Bruno Coursol Table of Contents


The Pyramids of the Cold version 2 (May 2023 - 11h00 July 1st 2024)

Summary of the study and Table of Contents


Part A: The evaporative cooling process

Section 1 • The horizontal evaporative cooling passage layout

Section 2 • The Dendera Light and the creation of the fog of microdroplets by the fog nozzle

Section 3 • The water cycle glorifying metaphors: Geb, Shu, Nut, Tefnut

Section 4 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process by Akhenaten and Nefertiti

Section 5 • The theorization of the evaporative cooling process in the Weighing of the Heart


Part B • The inclined well of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 6 • The inclined well layout and the girdle stones

Section 7 • The Taweret "Lady of the Well" temporary sealing granite plug of the well

Section 8 • The Bes temporary wedging block immobilizing Taweret

Section 9 • The draining of the well

Section 10 • The Great Serpent Apep and the snake water metaphors

Section 11 • The Was scepter and the control over "snakes"

Section 12 • The beating Heart of the Great Pyramid


Part C • The composite impactor of the Great Pyramid (Horus, Ra, Osiris, Medjed, Sobek...)

Section 13 • The wooden and stone composite design of the impactor: Ra and Osiris

Section 14 • The endlessly immersed Osiris stone and the seed metaphor

Section 15 • The Anubis sledge and the bobsled mask

Section 16 • The sledge runners of the impactor: Thoth

Section 17 • Medjed: the smiter nobody can ever see

Section 18 • The Apis bull and the ramming impactor's metaphors

Section 19 • The crocodile god Sobek impactor (more or less) floating in the waters of the well

Section 20 • The Obelisk and the Benben stone rising from water


Part D • The Grand Gallery's of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 21 • The Sacred "sloping paths" of the "oval-shaped cavern of the act of Hauling"

Section 22 • The central wooden caisson of the Gallery: Sekhmet and the Triad of Memphis

Section 23 • The hauling ropes of the Grand Gallery: Isis, Nephthys, Hatmehit, Wadjet and Nekhbet

Section 24 • The hauling Beetle and the Seven Scorpions of Isis

Section 25 • The Great Cow goddess Hathor and the operating cycle of the hauling Beetle

Section 26 • The 10 operating phases of the Grand Gallery

Section 27 • The guide to the Afterlife for the smart traveler and the canopic jars

Section 28 • The scarab amulet glorifications of the hauling Beetle


Part E • The very large and roughly finished sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 29 • The biosand filter sarcophagus of the Great Pyramid

Section 30 • The Elephantine Triad deification of the biosand filter of the Great Pyramid

Section 31 • The Great Pyramid's operating flat roof and the water supply issue


Part F • Chemical manufacturing and industrial cooling before the Great Pyramid

Section 32 • The Serdab and the "Refreshment of the Gods" Step Pyramid of Djoser

Section 33 • Sneferu's Red Pyramid and the accumulated ammonia

Section 34 • The Disc of Sabu and the Solvay process for pure natron manufacturing


Part G • The tremendous impact of the Great Pyramid on the whole ancient world

Section 35 • The hidden secrets of the Hermetica Emerald Tablet (around 1600 C.E.)

Section 36 • Thor and the magical Hammer in the Great Hall of Bilskirnir

Section 37 • The Churning of the waters of the Ocean of Milk (Hindu mythology)

Section 38 • The Tibetan prayer wheels and the Grand Gallery's operation

Section 39 and Conclusion • The cooling water of spitting Kebechet


Part H • Epilogue

Section 40 • The smiting Ark of the Covenant and the Ten Commandments

Section 41 • The 293 kilograms windlass Staff of Moses and Aaron... and the First Plague of Egypt: water turning into blood

Section 42 • Ezekiel's Four Egyptian pulley "Wheels within the Wheels" and the four angel ropes

Section 43 • David, Saul, two giant Goliaths, five little stones, an aeolian harp... and a weaver's beam

Section 44 • The holy water fonts and the biosand filter


Part I • The magicians of the Great Pyramid of Giza

Section 45 • The Legend of Khufu and the "magician" polymath Imhotep

Section 46 • The two magical eyes of Isis and the brilliant but painful flame of her twin sister's braids

Section 47 • The Aegis Shield of Athena "Subduer of the Winds" and the upper hatch of the central wooden caisson

Section 48 • The Seven Magical Words spoken by 'Divine Sealer' Goddess of Arrows and Bronze Neith

Section 49 • When the Taweret plug finally moves and becomes Mother of Fire Opet: the sparkling rocks metaphor

Section 50 • The Sledge and the Colossus

In memory of Pratt, beloved companion who just died, July 1st 2024, 11h00 a.m. I love you Pratt, I miss you so much...



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